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Ivan Kalmar (174)
Lecture 3

ANT100 Linguistics Lecture 3.docx

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Ivan Kalmar

The forms of language: Outline  Levels of linguistic (language) form ("form" not on the test)  Discourse analysis: Text and context  Syntax: sentence structure  Text is not only written language but also spoken language  Morphology: words and their structure  Phonology: the sound system  o phonemes o allophones (only one question on these on the test) Everything on test will be in the lectures -readings only support what he talks about- Levels of Linguistics Texts (studied in discourse and analysis)  any meaningful item or items perceived as a unit  a meaningful item or items understood as not forming part of a larger item  the text is the limit of your analysis  linguistic and non-linguistic texts (in semiotics)  everything is a text and we can read it  Context  o In language and in other semiotic systems the meaning and function of each item depends on the context o "with text" Sentences (studied in syntax)  The structure of sentences  Linguists often use "grammar" to mean "syntax"  Linguists not concerned with "bad grammar" and "good grammar" but just observe  Linguists describe how people speak, do not prescribe how to speak "correctly"  If a normal native speaker says it in normal circumstances, then it is grammatical  Sentences with "bad grammar" are typically grammatical in the linguist's sense  The judgment of "badness" or "correctness" is a social issue  o class distinction (usually lower class has "bad grammar") Words (studied in morphology)  The structure of words  Morpheme: smallest unit of language that carries meaning  o examples of morphemes o  con text  sipp ed  care ful ly  shoe s  anti dis establish ment ari an ism o morphemes are not the same as syllables  as most linguistic analysis - morphology is concerned with spoken, not written language  if they add to the meaning - if you took them away will the meaning be the same?  if you cannot break it up in to a smaller word any more than it is a morpheme Wrong Right stu dent stud ent (cf. presid ent) ass is tant assist ant (cf. account ant) immig rant im migr ant Fris bee Frisbee (single morpheme word)  Allomorph: variant of a morpheme  o found in specific positions within the word o example: the "plural morpheme"
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