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Linguistics Lecture 2.docx

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Ivan Kalmar

Linguistics Lecture 2 How signs construct the world  Signification: “making sense,” “making signs”  Linguistic and non-linguistic signs  The Nature of Signs o Signifier and signified (two aspect) o Symbol, icon, index (three types)  Denotation and connotation (context of signs) **Study of signs = semiotics  study of: 1) language and 2) semiotics **Study of language = linguistics (part of semiotics) Semiotics  Study of language and semiotics (*TEST*)  Saussurean Theory on signification o Signifier (sign/object) and signified (what is referred to by the signifier/what it stands for) Types of Signs  Icon o Share some of their physical form with the referent  I.e. picture of the signified  Index o Do not share any of their form with the referent o Doesn’t sound or look like the referent o Referred to as indicate  but does not picture it o Smoke refers to fire  Symbol o Conventional signifier of referent o Have arbitrary relation of signified referent o Connected only via the system of signification (i.e language) o Opposite of arbitrary is “motivated” o Most words are arbitrary (symbols) o Some words are not PURE symbols (onomatopoeia) but even these words vary between languages
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