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Lecture 3

Linguistics Lecture 3.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Ivan Kalmar

Linguistics Lecture 3 Levels of Linguistic Form  Texts  Sentences  Words  Phonemes  Phones (phonetics) Discourse Analysis: Text and Context  Any meaningful item or items perceived as a unit  A meaningful item or items understood as not forming part of a larger item  “Hamlet” AND “to be or not to be” are both texts  Linguistic and non-linguistic texts (lecture room in a text)  Context o How text is understood (“with text”) o Outside the actual text but related to it Syntax: Sentence Structure  The structure of sentences Morphology: Words and their Structure  The structure of words  Morpheme: smallest meaningful unit of language that carries meaning o Con-text o Care-ful-ly o Not the same as syllables o Allomorph: Variant of a morpheme  Found in specific positions within the word  The “plural morpheme”  Variants (allomorphs): -s or –es  always spelled s, not always pronounced s (z or iz)  (d, b, g = z; t, p, k = s) o Phonemes  Units of the sound system of language  Not sounds but classes of sounds  Phonemes have
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