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Lecture 4

Linguistics Lecture 4.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Ivan Kalmar

Linguistics Lecture 4 Some things humans do are easy once you learn them  Sex – karma sutra?  Learn without training too – first language, walking  Born with ability to learn language?  All languages are fundamentally the same Language, Society, Freedom  Language, and signifying behavior in general, limits what we can say, think, and do, often below the level of our consciousness  Limiting innovation preserves the social order and can be hegemonic  Hegemonic – supports privileges of more powerful of society, royal, consent of public So how are we free?  Language varieties 1. Languages, dialects, language ideologies 2. Social variation accents, sociolects, registers  “languages, dialects, accents” – popular, not scientific terms  Hegemony: Three Approaches  Manufacturing consent  Conformity and resistance  Incorporation Nation, Language, Dialect  “Language: a dialect with an army”  if a way of speaking is associated with a political power it becomes the language  “Languages:” Danish, Norwegian; Russian, ukranian; Malay, Indonesian; Serbian, Croatian – varieties with a state  close to each other  „Dialects:” Cantonese, fukinese, mandarin, etc. Tagalog, Ilokano – varieties with no state  one country  “Languages: Serbian, Croatian; Hindi, Urdu – varieties within a religion (and script)  written differently – e.g. roman or Cyrillic  “Accents” Why do foreign accents persist?  Objective reasons: Critical period for learning distant languages  11-14 years of age  Subjective reasons: foreign accent depends on both production and reception of speech: how people speak and how we hear them  Not based on ethnicity on its own  Ethnic distinguisher is often language  Accent types and ethnic groups  “East European”  Slavic languages  Former “soviet” block countries  Not necessarily geographically based  “Indian”  apu  many immigrants from here to Canada today  Accent “classifications” reflect relations across the world and within the community  Why do foreign language spea
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