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University of Toronto St. George
Heather Miller

ANTHROPOLOGY 101 Introduction to Bio Ant & Arch 2013 Anthropology is the study of humans all times, all aspects. Paleontologist focus on a variety of animals. Holism focuses on all aspects than just some parts. Comparative as in comparing different groups of people to understand how and why. Relativistic meaning interested in why people in one society judge beliefs and practices of others as right or wrong. Most anthropologist are interested in both biology and culture. Ethology the study of animal behavior. Biological approach in anthropology? Enculturation? What is culture? Culture is all aspects of human beliefs, behavior and material culture. Biology- definition of culture is that it is learned and it’s transmitted by non-biological means. Enculturation is the process by which individuals learn the cultural beliefs; values are transmitted in a society. Evolution is biological change of the genetic structure of a population from one generation to the next. It includes speciation. Also about smaller changes in biology known as microevolution. Biocultural evolution the way that both culture and biology have continued to interact to affect human direction. Biocultural adaptation is physiological behavioral adjustments made by humans in response to the environment. Scientific method is a method of doing research by accumulation of data, generation of a hypothesis through collection of data and analyses. All hypotheses must be testable. Testable meaning repeatable experiments. Supporting the hypotheses leads to a theory. Theory is a well-established hypothesis and well accepted with good explanatory power, a theory has been well supported by facts, they explain all existing facts and they explain new facts. Anthropologists have been heavily involved in tourism, heritage management. Human culture can be described as the strategy by which people adapt to the natural and social environments in which they live. A Society is a group of people who share a common culture. Enculturation, the process by which individuals, generally as children, learn the values and beliefs of the family, peer groups, and society in which they are raised. Culture is learned not biologically determined meaning that our genes have no impact on human behavior. Cultural anthropology (also called social anthropology) is the study of all aspects of human behavior. Enlightenment- An eighteenth century philosophical movement in Western Europe the place of humans in nature and questioned the extent to which there exists a knowable order to the natural world, Medical anthropology is the subfield that explores the relationship between various cultural attributes and health and disease. Urban anthropology subfield that deals with issues of inner cities such as relationship between ethnic groups. Physical anthropology is the study of human biology within the framework of evolution and the interaction between biology and culture. Primatology is the study of the biology and behavior of nonhuman primates. Archaeology the method to understand human past by examine material remains. Anthropological archaeology is the application of archaeological methods to understand modern human origins and diversity. Differ from other anthropologists because the archaeological record is their primary data source. Evolution. Evolution theory is a European development in the 1800’s. Focus on concepts and people talked about in class and the textbook. Greek people explained concepts without scientific facts. Evolution is uniformitarianism not catastrophic things in the past could be explained by processes in the present.- Lyell , time of depth- earth is millions of years old because of the observed geological processes. Geology gives us a time depth and uniformitism gives us an idea about evolution. Biology- diversity, explanation and change over time. Early biologists focused on classification/taxonomy. Comparative biology. Linnaeus categorizes humans as animals. Recognition that species change over time. Lamarck first to explain evolutionary processes induced by environmental change. Differences between Larmarck & Darwin-Wallace. Larmarck; inheritance of acquired characteristics requires variation to arise when it is needed. Darwin& Wallace (natural selection) Selective pressure is factors in the environment that influences differential reproductive success in individuals. Evolution requires that variation already exists. Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection is natural selection in differential reproductive success in individuals leads to changes in the population. Natural selection acts on individuals, evolution acts on population .read pg 30-31 especially pg 31. Mechanism of evolutionary change. 1. Trait must be inherited. 2. Trait must vary in population. 3. Fitness is RELATIVE measure, changes as environmental changes. Two types of cells are somatic cells and gametes. Somatic 2n=46 chromosomes. Gametes n=23 chromosomes. Chromosomes are made of DNA. DNA is made up of nitrogen base, phosphate group and nucleotides which make a double helix. Two functions of DNA replicates and protein synthesis. DNA is responsible for transmission of acquired traits to offsprings. Diversity of organisms is due to DNA sequence. Antiquarian relation to objects and texts in the past. Hypothesis a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. Ethnocentrism viewing other’s cultures from one’s biased perspective of his own culture. Gene is a sequence of DNA that specifies a sequence for making a protein. Regulatory genes influence other genes for absence or presence. Mutation is a change in the DNA either change in base sequence or change in the structure and number of chromosomes. Proteins are important in functional development of an organism; they affect the regulation of systems. Somatic cells have same genetic information. Genes are active and inactive all cells. Example skin cells are capable of making proteins for bones. Chromosomes are cellular structures wrapped around DNA and found only in nucleus. During cell division chromosomes duplicate. Centromere where two strands of chromosomes meet. 22 autosomes & 1 sex chromosome. Autosomes must have two DNA’s present but sex chromosomes can have a functional organism present. Crossing over happens in meosis. Evolutionary importance the process of meiosis it leads to genetic variation and variant individuals can better adapt to new environmental pressures. Mutation is the source of variation. Recombination and sexual reproduction are common sources of population variation. Polygenic traits each genotype adds a bit to have the phenotype. Locus is the location of a gene on a chromosome. Antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. Variation is the inherited differences among individuals, the basis of all evolutionary change. Allele frequencies are indicators of the genetic makeup of a population. Gene flow is the exchange of genes within populations. Codominance heterozygotes that the expression of both traits. The ABO blood groups in humans AB are codominant. Two reasons why bad Dominant traits exist i) have positive evolutionary effect example sickle cell. Monogenic traits are controlled by one single locus. Discrete meaning their phenotypic expressions don’t overlap. Polygenic traits are controlled by genes at many locations (loci). Fg.3-17 Pg 57. Environment effects phenotypic expressions in polygenic traits. Modern theory of evolution; Two parts to evolution, role of variation and role of natural selection. Variation in population the only source of new of variation is mutation. Variation in a population mixed, distributed by recombination crossing over and sexual reproduction. Redistributed by gene flow and genetic drift. Variation is already in a population already. Natural selection is genetic differences results in higher reproductive fitness for some individuals due to differential reproduction and sexual selection. Or lab Read f Pg 65-67 Evolution change in genetic structure of a population. Macroevolution and Microevolution. Microevolution is the change in allele frequency within the population from one generation to another. Allele frequency is the percentage of alleles in a population. Population is a group of interbreeding individuals. Natural selection is the most important long term factor in directional of evolutionary change. Allele frequencies can be only changed by mutation, gene flow, genetic drift. Genetic drift happens in small populations and it is the random distribution of alleles. Gene flow is the exchange of genes between populations. Gene pool the total number of Human Variation species within local populations that differ in one or more phenotypic traits. Race & Polytypic species. Race as both social & Biological Concepts, ethnicity. Biological determinism the belief that cultural variations is inherited the same way as biological differences. More variation within populations than between them. New foci for human variation studies. 1. Variations in allele frequency(genotypic) with & between populations. 2. Adaptive significance of genotypic and phenotypic variation. Variation in allele frequency ; polymorphisms & human bio cultural evolution. Polymorphism are more than one alleles present in some abundance. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium shows distribution of alleles under fixed conditions. Multivariate approaches to analyze multiples traits at once (statistics). Physical and cultural play a role in phenotype. Tis true for Mendelian and polygenic traits. 1. Importance of environment 2. Importance of cultural adaptations. Biocultural evolution, Biocultural adaptations. Types of adaptation to environment. 1. Acclimatization Adult acclimatization, developmental acclimatization. 2. Evolutionary( genetic) change. Developmental acclimatization happens during infancy are irreversible changes that’s happens in the individual level. Evolutionary change long term population. Pg 55-56 81-84. 89- 93 What is a zoonotic disease? How is it related to influenza? What is a possible relationship between resistance HIV/AIDS and Smallpox? What is the main reason why death due to infectious disease is on the rise? What are some other reasons Classification two major organizing principles. 1 Geological time scale 2. Formal biological classifications. Organize to reduce complexity and to understand evolutionary relationships. Classification terminology; Homologies and homoplasy. Homology similar structures from derived common ancestor whilst homoplasy similar structures because of common function not as a result of common ancestor. Ancestral& derivative. For evolutionary studies need characters which are both – homologous within the larger group and derivatives. Read approaches to classification. Primates characteristics and anatomical adaptation pg 117-120. Grasping hands and legs with a thumb that can really cling. Vision is highly developed in primates and possess color vision. Increased brain capacity with loss of smell. Like all mammals primates have long maturation longer dependency and social groups but are deepened in primates. Primates were adapted to arboreal living that led to selection. An adaptaion for hunting small prey with vision. For hunting flowers with beneficial nutrients. All three of these ideas overlap and interact. Pg 120-124. Most primates are in the middle when it comes to dentition. Locomotion . Terrestrial quadrupe . pg 126 know names that show on slide. Primate behavioural models. Anthropology uses a comperative approach to evolution. Studying primates to remind us human are a continuum of life through anatomical and socially. By comparing closely related species we can get some significance of biological adaptations by selective pressures. All species continue to adapt. Evolution is not goal directed. Uniqueness of Humans pg 151-158 Anthropocentrism. What does set us apart from other animals? Tool use, cognitive abilities, lack of estrus. How do we study behavioural ethology. Most behavior is learned. Consederable variation in how flexible behavior is. Still very little know about behavior. Kinds of social behavior & group relations. Dominance, communication, aggression, affiliation & altruism. 1. Reproductive stragedies & group structure sexual selection; sexual dimorphism; infanticide. 2. Mother, father, infant & Adult-child relations. Cultural behavior is learned and not passed on genetically. 2. Cognitive abilities for tool use. 3. Cognitive abilities for tool communication, like warning group for predators. Bonoboo can spontaneously teach and learn sign language. Adaptive Niche an organisms entire way of life, where it lives, what it eats, how to get food and avoid predators. Quadrupedal using all four limbs to support the body during locomotion. Arboreal quadrupeds have shorter forelimbs, The limbs of terrestrial quadrupeds are approximately the same length. Vertical clinging and leaping another form of locomotion. Brachiation or arm swing body moves by alternatively suspended by one arm or another. Sub order of primates two groups; Strepsirhini ( lemurs and lorises) and Haplorhini ( tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans). Rhinarium moist nose pad that enhances sense of smell. Lemurs and lorises have a unique derived trait a dental comb formed by forward projecting incisors and canines. * End of first midterm * Second Part Paleoanthropology is the study of ancient human ancestors specifically homini. It’s multidisciplinary, process, reconstruct human ancestor behavior and ecology. Methods: Dating, environment, taphonomy, anatomy/biology of hominins, behavior/culture. Paleoarcheologist study hominins before us and archeologist study modern us. Archeology is the study of human past through material remains. Research objectives; To describe the past- who, when , where(specifics). To analyze and reconstruct past lifeways- what(behavior). To explain past events & directions- how, why(trends, causes). Research design( scientific design) Collect background information. Data gathering; i) survey to find out what there, to gather landscape. Ii) Excavation iii)Collections &Archives. Terms; sites a place where people did stuff it can be a castle a burial site, a culturaly modified sites. Artifacts made by humans for use. Ecofacts natural objects. Feature is a non-portable artifact a human modification of a land space. Context is the special and temperol location of an artifact, a feature or a site in association with other remains. Chronology and dating Methods. When? Relative tells u if something is older or younger. Relative dating a. Stratigraphy: Principle of association and Superposition. The idea of studying the sequential layer of the deposition. Principle of association if u find two depositions togerther then they were in the same time period. Other methods index fossils/ cross-dating seriation. Chronometric dating provides an estimate of years. a) Radiocarbon Dating ( C14) & AMS b) Potassium-Argon( K-Ar) & Argon-Argon( Ar-Ar) c) Dendrochronology. Radiocarbon good for about 40 thousand to present and AMS for about 60 thousand. What archeologist use. Used for organic material, charred wood, bone and shell. Potassium- Argon what most paleoarcheologist use from 200 thousand or more years. Material are volcanic ash, igneous materials. Dendrochronology most accurate. Archeologist use both relative and chronometric. Use multiple techniques. All share an archeological problem RELEVANCE. Data Analysis, Data interpretation and Writing Up/ Publication.o Taphonomy: the study of how bones and materials became buried on earth and preserved as fossils. Movie The afar in east Africa. Bone is believed to be 3,330,000, australopetheticus africanus. 6 million years in chad halieothop. Read pg 228-229 Australopiths diversification of species and adaptive radiation. Brain size,not much change in brain size for a while. After australopiths there is an increase in brain size. Development in children is quicker in apes. Timing later australopiths & early homo overlap for > a million years. Early homo time & place 2.0 + 1.4mya ; Africa. Biological remains all found in Africa. Jaws are arched a bit, teeth start to get smaller and narrower. Pg 225-226 Early Homo culture stone tools, Olduvai Gorge( 2mya-modern); geological, paleontological * hominin remains. Information on hominin behavior. Fully bipedal, they have bigger brains than australopiths and they were scavangers. Homo erectus Time & place 1.8/1.7 mya – 100,000 ya The first to leave Africa, Among homo group the homo erectus is the most efficient in terms of adaption and survival. Evolved first from Africa. Biological remains vary in time/space. Body size is bigger than earlier species and tall too. Homo erectus show sexual dimorphism, their weight their a bit more robust. Increase in brain size decrease in face size and flatter compared to other homos. Long/low skull, brow ridge, torus, sagittal keel’ prognathic, little chin. Nuchal torus is a projection of bone in the back of the cranium where neck muscles attach. These muscles hold up the head. Maximum breadth of skull BELOW ears. Dmanisi by 1.75mya; Oldowan tools. Java 1.6mya China by 1.1 mya Zhiukoudian at 0.8mya- population,, tools. Europe by 1.2mya Sima del Elefante- material similar. Stone tools - Oldowan in Africa, Europe, West Asia Not Oldowan in East and Southeast Asia. Oldowan replaced by Acheulian tools. (1.6mya)(hand axe, cleaver) to West (starting Africa) East Asia: continue using choppers & flakes. Expedient tools made when needed discarded when not. Curated tools used and kept. - Food They were mostly scavangers. - Fire- occasional no real evidence of fire. Language no real evidence. Homo erectus to Pre-modern Humans. Overwiew, Times & Tools Geological periods & climate change. Analyze fig. 11-10 You need to know what tool tradition that each hominin is associated with the lowerpaleolithic and higher paleolithic. 1.8mya to 10,000 is the plitosence period. Premoderns: Homo Heildelbergensis Transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens Time & Place: 600,000 ya to 125,000 (Middle Pleistocene) in Africa, Europe, Asia. Found all over the old world. In Europe Homo Heildelbergensis is believed to be ancestor of Neantherdals. In Africa Homo Heildelbergensis is believed to be ancestor of modern humans. Biological Changes: They have big browdges, low forward and big occipital torres. The brain size is bigger, The brain case is more round than homo erectus. Maxium width is above the ears. More flatter faces, b
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