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Anthro Last Lecture Note

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University of Toronto St. George
Shawn Lehman

2013-04-04 World System Theory -Wallenstein’s world system theory model (Google image) -World system theory: single social system based on production for the market exchange, profit maximization and economic growth -based on wealth and power differences, class inequalities -characterized by spread of industrial capitalist world economy since the 15c -core, periphery and semi-periphery Industrialization (18c) -Dramatic increase in the production for profit rather than subsistence -Mechanization of production (in factories and in nature) -Urban growth and new kinds of cities- factories -pop growth and rural- urban migration -stratification based on class capitalist and working class The Ecological Origins of the World System: Enclosure -under enclosure, common lands are fenced (enclosed) and deeded or entitled to one or more owners -initiated 1500s in England -capitalism created for the first time in history -Karl Porlany: enclosure of one of our ancestors- transformed nature and people into commodities -imperialism: the policy of extending rule of a country or empire over foreign nations -colonialism; political, social and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time The Emergence of the World System -15c age of exploration -expansion of regional transoceanic trade to transatlantic trade routes and global trade -lined previously isolated regions (old and new worlds) -facilitated major exchange of people, resources, products, ideas, and disease Columbian Exchange -exchange of movements of people, plants, animals, diseases -potatoes became very key to European culture Manufacturing industrial Ecologies -Europeans brought the system of private property to the Americans Sugar/cotton and slave trade Triangular Trade and the Origins of the International Division of Labour -some countries are responsible for manufacturing cheap labour, while other countries produce them for low costs and they get sold for more expensive costs The Invention of Development -Truman’s “Doctrine of Development” often cited as birth of development, the goal is to spread technology to underdeveloped countries of the world (Jan 20, 1949) -Major changes is the emergence of the U.S, identification of economic development -“The Truman doctrine initiated a new era in the understanding and management of world affairs, particularly those concerning the less economically accomplished countries of the world” –Escobar International Development -the idea of this has become one of the primary organizing principle of our time The Globalization of Poverty -Three worlds: 1. Capitalist Countries 2. Communist Countries 3) Poor/Third World Countries -satisfied comparison of per capita income first conducted in the 1940s by World Bank -countries with annual per capita income below $100 defined as poor and labelled third world -Diverse cultures and economies reduced to one variable- monetary wealth -that the essential trait of the third world was its poverty and that the solution became economic growth and development -through the emergence of economic development that countries began to become more integrated into this capitalist theory Globalization as Systematic Connectedness -globalization refers to processes of increasing systematic connectedness 1. Speed of global communication 2. Scale of global networks 3. Volume of international transactions What is Globalization? - The spread of connectedness- production, communication, technologies - As ideology and policy globalization efforts to expand the capitalist world system based on free market principles - Often resisted through and practices and anti-globalization and idolization Scopes and Flows - Five dimensions of global cultural flows: 1. Ethnoscapes- people and cultures around cultures moving around the world, mixing in new ways 2. Mediascapes- media flows around the world 3. Tacnoscapes-New landscapes of technology emerging (i.e. iPhone) 4. Financescapes- Financial transactions 5. Ideoscapes- New landscapes and spread of ideas Globalization as Neoliberal Capitalism -as ideology (ideoscape) and policy refers to the promotion of a particular type of world system, a system based on neoliberal capitalist ideologies and policies -privatization, free trade and de regulation -communist second world opened to world capitalism with fall of Soviet Union and reforms in china -this version of g
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