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Lecture 3

ANT100Y1 Lecture 3 Languistics.docx

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Ivan Kalmar

ANT100Y1 1/31/2013 4:01:00 PM A lie refers to something that doesn’t exist All humans w.o any effort can learn to use language in some form. The characteristic of language is that all humans can perform it. Language has a structure, and all of us learn it because we are programmed to learn it  Not sure if genes are there for language  Inherited ability Forms of Language: Outline  Lvls of linguistic (language) form  Discourse analysis: text and context  Syntax: sentence structure o Text is whole unit of text.  Morphology: words and their structure  Phonology: sound o Phonemes o Allophones Learning Resources  Assigned readings  Wikipedia and the internet  Books in the P section (12 th floor at Robarts) Lvls of Language  Txts : studied in discourse analysis  Sentences (studied in syntax)  Words *studied in morphology  Phonemes (phonology)  Phones (phonetics Texy- Any meaningful item(s) perceived as a unit  A meaningful item(s) understood as not forming part of a larger item o Analysis decides if it is a text  “to be or not t be”-text (hamlet)  Linguistic and non-linguistic texts  Everything is a text o And we can read it Context  Text only makes sense in the context. It signifies it.  In language and other semiotic systems  The meaning and fxn of each item depends on the context  Context: what’s outside the actual text  Consider all the things in their context Syntax  The structure of sentences  Linguists often use “grammar” to mean syntax  Main public thinks of bad grammar vs good grammar  Linguists describe how people speak; they do not prescribe how to talk “correctly”  If normal native (or native like) speaker says it in normal circumstances, then it is grammatical  Sentences w/ “bad grammar” are typically grammatical in the linguist’s sense  The judgment of “badness” or “correctness” is a social issue. o Social condemnation not supported Morphology  The structure of words  Morpheme: smallest unit of language that carries meaning  Concerned with spoken word  Morphemes are not the same as syllables o Con text o Sipp ed o Care ful ly o Shoe s o Anti dis establish ment ari an ism o In theory, there is no longer words, we can always make them longer o S like z= grammatical meaning o These are tools of analysis o Do we dinf them in English? o Do we give them meaning? o If taken away, do they have meanings? Morphemes and Alomorphs  Allomorphs: va
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