ANT100Y1 1/31/2013 4:01:00 PM
A lie refers to something that doesn’t exist
All humans w.o any effort can learn to use language in some form.
The characteristic of language is that all humans can perform it.
Language has a structure, and all of us learn it because we are programmed
to learn it
Not sure if genes are there for language
Forms of Language: Outline
Lvls of linguistic (language) form
Discourse analysis: text and context
Syntax: sentence structure
o Text is whole unit of text.
Morphology: words and their structure
Wikipedia and the internet
Books in the P section (12 th floor at Robarts)
Lvls of Language
Txts : studied in discourse analysis
Sentences (studied in syntax)
Words *studied in morphology
Texy- Any meaningful item(s) perceived as a unit
A meaningful item(s) understood as not forming part of a larger
o Analysis decides if it is a text
“to be or not t be”-text (hamlet)
Linguistic and non-linguistic texts
Everything is a text
o And we can read it
Text only makes sense in the context. It signifies it. In language and other semiotic systems
The meaning and fxn of each item depends on the context
Context: what’s outside the actual text
Consider all the things in their context
The structure of sentences
Linguists often use “grammar” to mean syntax
Main public thinks of bad grammar vs good grammar
Linguists describe how people speak; they do not prescribe how to
If normal native (or native like) speaker says it in normal
circumstances, then it is grammatical
Sentences w/ “bad grammar” are typically grammatical in the
The judgment of “badness” or “correctness” is a social issue.
o Social condemnation not supported
The structure of words
Morpheme: smallest unit of language that carries meaning
Concerned with spoken word
Morphemes are not the same as syllables
o Con text
o Sipp ed
o Care ful ly
o Shoe s
o Anti dis establish ment ari an ism
o In theory, there is no longer words, we can always make
o S like z= grammatical meaning
o These are tools of analysis
o Do we dinf them in English?
o Do we give them meaning?
o If taken away, do they have meanings?
Morphemes and Alomorphs