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Archaeology lecture.docx

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Doug Thomson

Archaeology lecture # 3 Becoming Human -Homo habilis- early species belonging to our genus, Homo, with cranial capacities averaging about 630- 640 cc, about 50 percent of the brain capacity of modern humans. Dating from about 2 million -Homo rudolfensis- early species belonging to our genus, homo, similar enough to Homo habilis that some paleoanthropologists make no distinction between the two. Early Hominin Cultures Tool Traditions -some tools dated back to time of homo habilis -h.habilis had greater brain capacity maeks sense they made it instead if australioithecines -reality none of tools dated to that time so who made it -Hominines that live from atheist 2.5mill years ago- 1.5 millions ago have thumbs capable of toolmakin, so all of them had been toolmakers -oldest tools bout 3000 found recently at Gono, Ethopia -range from very small flakes (thumb-size) to cobble or core tools that were fist size -Percussion flaking- a toolmaking techinique in which one stone is struck with another to remove a flake -both sharp edged flakes and sharp edged cores were use as tools -oldest cultural materials Olduvai (Bed 1) date from lower Pleistocene -stone artifacts include core tools and sharp-edged flakes, but flake tools predominat -choppers are common, a core tool that has been partially flaked and has one-side that might have been used for chopping -scrapers- a flat edge with flakinf along one side -unifacial tool- stone has facets removed from only one side of the cutting edge -bifacial tool- stone has both facets emoved from both sides - types of tools found in Bed I and to some extent in later (higher) layers is rfrred to as O
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