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Doug Thomson

Becoming Human: Lecture Three CULTURAL CHRONOLOGY Lower Paleothithic – 2.5 mya to 200 kya H. Habilis (Oldowan); H. erectus(Acheulian) MiddelPaleolitich 300 kya to kya Neaderthals (Mousterian) Upper [aeloithick 40 kya to 14 kya Modern Humans (AuirgnacianGravettian, etc). Early tool use: The oldowan Ealiest documented hominitechnolohy Beginning of the loiwer Paleolithic Period Simple tools; East Africa (Olduvai Gorge) ca 2.5 Mya Coincides .the emergence of H. habilis Consists of the large pebble chopped and flakes Flakes couls have been used for a variety of tasks Homo erectus  Transition to more advanced hominin forms .Herectus ca. 1.9 mya  First to use fire- ca 1.5mya Swarkrans (South Africa)  First to leave Africa- adapted to a number of environments e.g. Europe, SE Asia by 1.8 mya The Acheulian Tradition  Oldowan technology gives way to Acheulian by 1.5 mya, lasts until ca. 60,000 BP.  Africa, Western Europe and SW Asia  Choppers, flake tools, cleavers and hand axes- regional variability Acheulian Hand Axe  Prepared core technology – evidence of skill (Knapping techniques)  Symmetry around long axis – cognitive development (mental templates)?  Bifacially worked, multipurpose tools- Woodworking, butchery, scraping skins Neanderthals  Emerge ca. 150 kya; last until roughly 30 kya  Flourished in Europe (Particularly western Europe) and SW Asia  Contentious hominin designation Neanderthal Tool Technology: The Mousterian  Associated with the Middle Paleolithic Period  Name given to stone tool technology associated with the Neanderthals of Eurasia between 100 and 30 kya  Named after a prominent site in SW France ( Le Moustier)  Flake-based technology (retouched flakes) though formal tools are also found  Also, evidence of composite tools (tools with more than one component eg. Point, shaft and binding for spear)  A hallmark of the Mousterian is use of the Levallois technique ( a prepared core technology)  Involved carefully preparing the core so as to outline the finished tool before it is actually detached  Requires skill and planning Levallois Techniques Stage one :The core is shaped, producing the surface that will be one face of the finished tool Stage 2: The knapper carefully removes small flakes from one end of the core, forming a striking platform. Stage 3: A single, well-directed blow to the striking platform detaches a large flake (n red) that is the finished tool. Neanderthal Burial Practices *Evidence of:  Intentional burial  Altruism  Social group cohesion  Territotrality? E.g. Shanidar Cave, NE Iraq  Nine skeletons (Shanidar I through IX) Shanidar 1 –“ Nandy”
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