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Lecture

ANTC17 W12.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT100Y1
Professor
Larry Sawchuk
Semester
Winter

Description
ANTC17 W12 - Bulk of the test is on today’s lecture - For the most part it will be similar to midterm but more MC - Show picture of fossil specimen and identify Specie’s name, where it was found, and the date. - Homo erectus were not uploaded so it was reloaded Lecture Outline - We differentiate anatomically human and behavior human o Prof thinks they should be classified together - Certain list of behaviors with symbolism and abstract thoughts - 2 different approaches to understand Continuity and Upper Paelolithic Revolotion o Prof believes in Continuity Anatomically Modern humans - Different from ancestor – possees forehead and chin, and some other features. Skull is blabular - We have gracile mandible of jaw - Our 3 molar (wisdom tooth) not enough space - Chin – mantel eminence – has to do with speech, language, reason, symbolic thoughts, etc. - Things are starting to fit together well in terms of evidence of history of our species. for a long time Genetic studies didn’t agree. All of our indication of MDNA says we have been species have been 200,000 years. - For a long time the onldest fossil remains we have from S Africa (the very right picture) AMHS – early fossil - KRM - Right picture – we have known this the longest o It is clearly anatomically modern o Got chin and forehead o But date doesn’t match - Recently, shifting to E Africa – we start finding fossil in the right time frame. Omo I – chin, forehead is vertical. So the date matches perfect as well, close enough to 200,000 ya. - Herto – forehead and chin. Nice balance between KRM and Omo 1 in terms of dating - AMHS – we see them in Israel, SW Asia by 100 kya - They seem to have migrated out of Africa at about __ ya in most Asia by about 60 kya in Australia… but doesn’t get to European until a very a long time later. 2 models are based on one in replacement (HS evolved in Afirca ony and replaced everywhere with NO gene flow, whereas second theory says with GENE FLOW) - Sphere heads o Weird and interesting because we don’t have 100% proof either than genetics that they were in the same time frame. o Other than anatomy, humans and Nean are behaving at similar ways in the beginning. Upper Paleolithic Revolution - Occurs about 50kya – a major transition and crazy explosion of culture - 2 ideas that were put forward to explain how this workds o Continuity – anatomical humans always have potential for advanced culture. Smal group will come up with innovation but we see more cultural interaction that makes a group culture o UPR – at about 50-40 kya, there is genetic mutation since they started eating shellfish etc  But we see no genetic mutation in the brain so difficult to prove this  We need complex fatty acid before we can have abstract thoughts – we have to continue consuming marine food… but how about those people who didn’t eat these food? You don’t require a constant consumption of food The list (bucket list) - Each thing on the list are innovative and amazing and some say you have to have all these. Prof thinks human can adapt flexibly - 2 approach – one says you have to have biological difference, but continuity says no culture does - Different tool industry shown here - Expansion of diet – they are starting to catch fish, small rabbits, and long distance trade (risk-reduction mechanism), jewelry (proxy for groups, self- identifying), art (abstract ideas like music, game), burial (ideology of thoughts of afterlife. If they are writing on the wall of afterlife we don’t know how to interpret) Tools - Transition from Olduwan to P – how much edge we can get from per pound - Achuelian – many flakes removed and these flakes as knives. - In UPR in the same flint, they are still standardized in small flakes. Thinner that produce blade vs flake – blade: any flake that had to be 2x as long as it is wide – but this is remarkable because it acts as a blank of host of different types of tools. We now have 64 different tool types. these new blade industry can be made into numerous different tools. - Swiss army knife – we start seeing needles, sew clothing, etc. Important in N Europe where it is cold. Instead of big scrapers we see small scrapers. We can take 2 blades – if you break sphere heads, take a new one and put it in instead of makinga new one Tool types - More knives than scrapers - We see other materials as tools like antler points and wooden points and bone points o Why do we see this change? o archeological disability – hasn’t decomposed yet so there hasn’t been tiem for it to fall apart Projectile technology - We can launch its arrow head and add extra lever to the image. So we picking up boomerangs in Australia, and these things are engrained and artistic expression on tools Fishing - Not just sea side fishing but large marine protein - Ivory fish hook – they are already going after dolphins, small whales, seals. - Expanding and utilizing more shellfish Bone harpoons - They are engrained with no reason Pigments - Regular use for arts, coding their bodies so you can identify them from distance. Also it can be used as temper that makes sphere stiff Personal ornamentation - On the right it is ostrich eggshell that has been grained
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