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Lecture 6

ANTC16 W6.docx

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Larry Sawchuk

ANTC16 W6 Midterm - Much more focused on details of short answer on lecture materials than textbook. Majority of details 100% come from lecture - Most of specific date will come from lecture than textbook, and more short/MC answers Lecture Outline: - Models of behavior: great apes and modern hunter-gatherers - Who were the Australopithecines Models of behavior - Homologies o A trait shares by 2 or more species thru inheritance from a common ancestor - Analogies o Trait shared by 2 or more species that is similar in function but unrelated evolutionarily o Will focus more on. Certain traits that use common ways of dealing with same environment or process that they need to deal with. The other aspect that we use is uniformitarianism = primary source of assumption o i.e. human arm – bat wings – butterfly eings Extant apes Behavior/social organization/fossils? - Sexual dimorphism in Gorillas: harms - Lack of sexual dimorphism in Gibbons: monogamous pairs - Large canine teeth: male competition over females - We try to come up with correlation between behavior and social organization fossils. o It is hard and almost impossible so we need to rely on these methods o Analogies are very important o Great apes like gorillas – anatomy behavior – sexual dimorphism is like harem-like behavior. Large males with large teeth and small females with small canine are always going to be in harm – and all sexual behavior will be dominated by males - Austrophelus o How is it similar to gorilla o We found many boyseye(sp?) males are bigger in size and teeth than females Chimpanzee - Similar behavioural patterns of o Continual sexuality o Friendship o Food sharing o Territoriality - There are complex behaviours and both humans and chimps are complex species with 5 MY of separate evolution - Not shared genetics for these complex behaviors What we share with chimps and a common ancestor is: Closest analog to humans - Social interaction based on individual recognition - Strong bond based on family relationships - Long term friendships o There is some in gorillas but not as much. Like look at cats, they don’t really do that - Sexual consciousness o Continual sexuality - Mutual care within the group o Food sharing - Recognition and defense of the group o Very territorial - Human/chimp separated 5 million yrs ago so not much shared genetic traits, but these were probably already present in common ancestor - It reflects what we assume that we split from chimps. If we both do these things, then so did austropehlus - What we share o The first 4 traits together applies that they were family-based. They would go out and come back to home group based on kin. *** o They would look after each other if one gets sick Hunter gatherers - Definition *** - What does it mean to be HG, why do we use this as model? o HG rely on nature for their subsistence o No farming or domestic animals except dogs o They are highly mobile, hunting in seasonal cycle o Small groups of nuclear families o Follow animals/herds o Egalitarianism with strong sharing ethos – no set leader, and the only division of labour is btwn sexes o They live as our ancestors did until 12,000 YA / agricultural revolution o uniformatarianism o Neolitic revolution put an end to us to be HG. We want to look at how this population live off landscape how these past issues survive 2 most famous ethnographic studies - !king o bushmen of Botswana Africa studied by Richard Lee and Harvard Expedition - nunamuit o of Alaska studied by Lewis BInford who focused on ethnoarchaeology and subsistence strategies Dobe !kung - Lee studied demography, kinship system, health, diet, disease, hunting practice, mobility, etc. there - “The god’s must be crazy” movie - Moved around in the landscape. There was man hunters and most of the anthropological study – what was remarkable in the study was they went in there thinking that all the things they consume were from hunting like meat. But majority of calorie came from women gathering. Women’s gathering was not credited back then. While it was called Man Hunter, it should have been called Man Hunter Women Gatherer. This is taken for granted today but was a great discovery back then - couldn’t develop the social ideological aspect of culture. - picture – boiling energy to get sickness out of him - picture – cave art. This is info we are trying to get at interms of social behavior. What is the sourt of data we can get at? Stones, bones, fossils, etc. but we will NEVER get their ideology, belief system etc *** nunamuit - Binford – developed ethnoarchaeological approaches - Started 2 things o Processual Archaeology movement  (quantitative nature of sci – approach of studying archeology)  people were more interested in change of pottery etc.  he was interested in what hunting strategies at the site. o Zooarcheology  Study of animal bones  hunting strategy and sub sistent strategies - Map showing where he went o Seal coat and complex social interaction o Red dot – where he studies – famous for hunting caribut, and there were remains of bone to study how they were butchered. They could also move to coast. good area to study modern HG - Model seating plan o Go out to hunting camp with men and draw how they sit around camp and socialize. They sit around the fire . when people eat bones, they would toss behind them which is called the toss zone o Drop zone - ??? missed o He can come up where each person has been doing o That way we will know by comparison how people were doing hunting back then Settlement strategies : foraging - Simplified or complex HG popn? o Simplied - !kung o Complex - nunamuit - Main feature of that diff – concept of storage. Simple foragers literally move around in landscape. !kung – entire group of individual live together around water. Each these forage for food – men hunt and women gatherer. Important pattern – individual pattern go to same place and move the entire camp when they have explored all the area. Immediate returns *** u go out, get what u need to eat, consume immediately. - Nunamuit is more complex. He calls them collectors of logistical pattern. Delayed return strategies. Rather than moving the whole camp when they run out of resources, they send specialized camp to bring ore resources. So they need to move the camp less. Of they are caribou specialists and they have bad year, they catch seal meat instead and cash seal meat at the beach. then they send teams to get seat meat to get that was in the freezer by the coast. - Doesn’t matter fossil specimens they are comewhat continual of these 2 models. Issues - Modern HG are not primitive people. o They have the same potential for social and technological complexity - They have intelligence. o They decide to follow adaptation in the environment they live in and don’t need technology - Not pristine, they have had contact with agricultural communities o They have been living in this system for a long time and have been contact and trade. o Most HG popn around today happen to live by agriculturalist. They choose not to be farmers. - They use their individual culture to cope with changing environment o Rather than using biology to adopt they use cultures - Yet, certain generalities can be observed Problems Some HG follow models of immediate returns. Since the 60s -70s and ppl have been using archeological record, we have seen negative side effects (Problem slide) - They don’t necessarily lie about data but change the data to suit their model. Supporting the info they want more o Prone to making archaeological material match ethnographic record - Soc antho not interested in acheologists. Soc anthro want to study kin ship. They don’t car about how HG lived. But archeologists are interested in HG - these studies don’t get at ideology or specific cultural behavior. Primate tree - no longer talking bout fossils and apes, now looking at human ancestry - timeline o end of miocene and Pliocene transition. Between 2-1.5 mya - many dff ppl think that _orrorin, _ and __ have only genes. Time period differences ***????? - In textbook there are diff classification that they are all together as one or diff species. We don’t know that they are 100 yrs away. We don’t know if they can interpret w one another. Earths primate - Period of rapid cooling n drying esp in Africa - Not that things are changing but it is rapid. 5 mya we had new species in a group called grass. It is a new form. And new species evolved to be able to eat grass. - 5mya we also see bipedalism becoming more common. In forests. The origin of bipedalism is not in in grasslands Environment, diet and australlipithecine origin - Major climatic changes in the late Miocene o Drying up of Mediterranean sea  which creates bridge and (no water barrier) o Breaking up of forests  shrinkage in forest  All Africa was forest. We only have earth near equator o Creation of mosaic environment – with more open areas, interspersed with forest patches  primate species like to eat tree food like trees and fruits. Reduction of trees = food sources gone. Effect in climatic change - Change in diet o Change in food availability o Less “tree” food o More open ground foraging o i.e. seed, grass, roots - Change in dentition o Changes reflected in their diet
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