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Primate Sexuality lec 1 .docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Dr.Joyce Parga

Primate Sexuality (ANTC23) – Lecture one: Introduction Goals  Understand the process of sexual selection  Understand how primate social behaviour, sexual behaviour, and different traits can be adaptive An adaptive trait or behaviour increases an individual’s reproductive success (RS) relative to other individuals in the population Example: Mate Guarding Ring tailed-lemur guards the female he copulated with in order to increase fitness (prevent the female from mating with other males, if other males copulate with her the chances that the first male fathered her children becomes less likely (reduces reproductive success)) Sexual jealousy in humans is similar to mate guarding in other primates Primate Sexuality (ANTC23) – Lecture two: Introduction to the Non-Human Primates & Chapter 2 notes Primate characteristics:(7)  Eyes that point forward: binocular (stereoscopic) vision  Grasping hands and feet  Thumbs are opposable  Nails rather than claws  Large-brained animals  Reproduce slowly compared to other mammals of similar body size  Single offspring is most common  Extended periods of infant and juvenile life  Divergent toe (ANTB22 )  Dermatoglyphs (fingerprints) ( ANTB22)  Clavicle (collarbone) ANTB22 )  Postorbital bar (ANTB22) The primate order is subdivided into two suborders Prosimians and Anthropoids The suborder Prosimians includes lemuriformes, lorsiformes, and tarsiformes The suborder anthropoids includes platyrrhini and catarrhini Platyrrhini can be further categorized ceboidea (new world monkeys) with include callitrichidae (marmosets and tamarins), atelidae (spider monkeys, howler monkey and miruquis), and Cebidae (squirrel monkey, owl monkey, and capuchin monkeys) Catarrhini can be further divided into cercopithecoidea (old world monkeys) and hominoidea (apes). Cercopithecoidea include cercopithecinea (baboons, macaques, and guenons) and colobinea (colobus monkeys and langurs) Hominoidea include hylobatidea (gibbons and siamangs), pongnidea (pongo (orangutans), gorilla, and pan (chimps)), and hominidae (humans) Tarsiers the complication! (11) Tarsiers exhibit features of both Prosimians and Anthropoids They are similar to Prosimians because they have a bicornate uterus They are similar to anthropoids because they lack moist rhinarium (all Prosimians have wet rhinarium) (rhinarium = nose) Due to this there’s another taxonomic division of primates. Primates can be divided into Strepsirrhini (Prosimians) and Haplorhini (anthropoids). All the primates remain in the same category except that now tarsiers belong to the suborder Haplorhini. We will be using Prosimians and anthropoids for this course Anthropoid traits:  Larger bodied than Prosimians  Larger relative brain size than Prosimians  Reduced reliance on smell – visual communication is more important  Almost all are diurnal (active during the day)  Have slower life-histories than Prosimians (take more time to sexually mature, live longer, have longer gestation lengths)  Includes old world monkeys and apes (chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, gibbons and siamangs) Chimpanzees Common chimp Pygmy chimp (bonobos) Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Both species are found in multi-male, multi-female groups Males aggressively dominate females Relationships between male and females Alpha individual in group is always a are egalitarian male Some group have alpha female Copulation is used strictly in a Copulation is used in many contexts to reproductive context lessen tension in a group, to reconcile, as a greeting Gorillas Found in single-male, multi-female, and multi-female groups Groups usually have at least 1 silve
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