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Ivan Kalmar

ANT100 170113 1172013 40200 PM ooSemiotic Anthropology oo Moieties of AnthropologyEvolutionary Anthropology and Archaeology SocioCultural and Linguistic Anthropology tho Age of ImperialismMid 19th to Mid 20 Century o WestNorth becoming dominant all over the world o Anthropology was largely a discipline for studying nonwest o NonWest understood by public and anthropology based on three difference1linguistic2cultural3 physicalracial4 material Also how western nation understood themselvesPublic Prejudices o Western biology material culture language and culture were considered the most advanced o Including by scientists o Primitive races cultures languages huntergatherers o Barbarians nomads o civilized races cultures languagesEthnocentrism o Seeing everything from the perspective of your people o Anthropologists had an ambiguous relationship with imperialism and ethnocentrism tho Modern anthropologistslate 19 contributed to building of western empires but o While unable to escape some of the prejudices of their time time most anthropologists tried to do soBronislaw Malinowski 18841942 in the Trobriad Islands 1918 o Each culture reponds to its own nicheFranz Boas 18581942 with KwakwakawakwKwakiutl Vancouver Island 1894 o Each culture is a complex of language culture and physical type and none inferior to any other o A higher culture is one that recognizes that we are equally humanMargaret Mead 19011978 In Bali doing Visual Anthropology o Orderly complex customs in nonWestern societies o Different psychological types in different cultural groups no hierarchyLanguage oMeans to signify o Making sense o Language is a signifying system a system for making senseThe functions of signification1 Communication o Speakersender o Hearerreceiver o Channel o Spoken o Written o Electronic o Body LanguageMarshall McLuhan U of T professor 19111980 o The medium is the message o Meaning regardless of its content a new mediumchannel of communication will change the way we live o global village2 Identity Formation o Signifying system language cause differentiation o Positive and Negative Aspects of Identity o Positive disregards comparison defines x by what x is on its own o Negative stresses difference defines x by what x is notDifferent Conflict Prejudice o Within all species groups can come into conflictPrejudice does not come from difference but from its contextPhysical Type and Prejudice o Race a folk notion not a scientific notion o Human races are not distinct genetic pool o Humans do look different and human looks can correlate with some other genetic traits o But not consistently enough to justify the notion of human races o There is more variationother than skin colour etc across than within races o So differences in appearance are given by nature but it is people who impose racial classification to those differences One DropRule o Racial classifications are made in the context of relations of power within society o The Black race and White race were invented along with slavery in the Americas o Whiteness meant freedom so needed to be protectedRacial Prejudice tho 19 century classification o black red yellow white o white the most civilized o Most people dont fall into these categories o Arabshistorically white then brown then Middle Eastern now in the US census a race on its ownRaces are constructed using languageCultural Relativism o States that there are no universal standards of progress or of morality o This can be exploited to deny progress to others
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