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Ivan Kalmar (174)
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ANT100 17LEC1.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT100Y1
Professor
Ivan Kalmar
Semester
Winter

Description
ANT100 170113 1172013 40200 PM ooSemiotic Anthropology oo Moieties of AnthropologyEvolutionary Anthropology and Archaeology SocioCultural and Linguistic Anthropology tho Age of ImperialismMid 19th to Mid 20 Century o WestNorth becoming dominant all over the world o Anthropology was largely a discipline for studying nonwest o NonWest understood by public and anthropology based on three difference1linguistic2cultural3 physicalracial4 material Also how western nation understood themselvesPublic Prejudices o Western biology material culture language and culture were considered the most advanced o Including by scientists o Primitive races cultures languages huntergatherers o Barbarians nomads o civilized races cultures languagesEthnocentrism o Seeing everything from the perspective of your people o Anthropologists had an ambiguous relationship with imperialism and ethnocentrism tho Modern anthropologistslate 19 contributed to building of western empires but o While unable to escape some of the prejudices of their time time most anthropologists tried to do soBronislaw Malinowski 18841942 in the Trobriad Islands 1918 o Each culture reponds to its own nicheFranz Boas 18581942 with KwakwakawakwKwakiutl Vancouver Island 1894 o Each culture is a complex of language culture and physical type and none inferior to any other o A higher culture is one that recognizes that we are equally humanMargaret Mead 19011978 In Bali doing Visual Anthropology o Orderly complex customs in nonWestern societies o Different psychological types in different cultural groups no hierarchyLanguage oMeans to signify o Making sense o Language is a signifying system a system for making senseThe functions of signification1 Communication o Speakersender o Hearerreceiver o Channel o Spoken o Written o Electronic o Body LanguageMarshall McLuhan U of T professor 19111980 o The medium is the message o Meaning regardless of its content a new mediumchannel of communication will change the way we live o global village2 Identity Formation o Signifying system language cause differentiation o Positive and Negative Aspects of Identity o Positive disregards comparison defines x by what x is on its own o Negative stresses difference defines x by what x is notDifferent Conflict Prejudice o Within all species groups can come into conflictPrejudice does not come from difference but from its contextPhysical Type and Prejudice o Race a folk notion not a scientific notion o Human races are not distinct genetic pool o Humans do look different and human looks can correlate with some other genetic traits o But not consistently enough to justify the notion of human races o There is more variationother than skin colour etc across than within races o So differences in appearance are given by nature but it is people who impose racial classification to those differences One DropRule o Racial classifications are made in the context of relations of power within society o The Black race and White race were invented along with slavery in the Americas o Whiteness meant freedom so needed to be protectedRacial Prejudice tho 19 century classification o black red yellow white o white the most civilized o Most people dont fall into these categories o Arabshistorically white then brown then Middle Eastern now in the US census a race on its ownRaces are constructed using languageCultural Relativism o States that there are no universal standards of progress or of morality o This can be exploited to deny progress to others
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