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ANT347Y Lec 5 Political Economy of Cities.pdf

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Sharon Kelly

Lec 5 Political Economy of Cities October-08-13 12:03 PM Assignment due next week OCT 15 - hand in via Blackboard, no hardcopy needed - All entries in one document - Cover page (student number, name, course etc..) - 12pt, double spaced, - Go out into public space, no use of personally identifiable information (ethical reasons), write about observations, reflections, analysis, relate to the course - Allowed to use First Person ("I") - Contextual information is helpful - such as time and location (because night and day time is different) - Include reference page, included at the end (like an essay) - Citation - Chicago APA style Lecture: Political Economy of Cities Outline: - Urbanization: The Growth of Cities - Inequality in Cities and Between Cities - The City in Modernization Theory - The City in Dependency and World Systems Theories - The City in Globalization Theory *specifically what these theories have to say about the 'urban' and the cities Urbanization: The Growth of Cities - In 1950 there were 86 cities in the world with a population of over a million; now there are 386 - The present urban population in the world is 3 billion, larger than the whole world population in 1960 - Thus, there will be MEGACITIES with populations in excess of 8 million and HYPERCITIES with populations of more than 20 million - By 2025, Asia could have 10 or 11 hypercities, including Jakarta, Dhaka, Shanghai and Karachi, - Bombay is projected to have a population of 33 million by that time Inequality in Cities and Between Cities - In 2001, there were about 924 million people living in slums (almost the population of the world at the time) - Shantys / slums ○ Negative connotation - Slum dwellers constitute about 78.2% of the urban population in least developed countries; they constitue a third of global urban population - Sanitation in parts of Bombay, there is one toilet seat per 500 inhabitants ○ Speaks to the level of disenfranchisement of the public infrastructure - At least half of the slum population is under 25 years old (Significant - because politicized, criminal acts, lack of education) - Growing population of urban people around the world who are disenfranchised - More than half of urban residents in developing world occupy land illegally - Developing world and global south, places where explosion of inequality is happening is in slums - Currently We crossed the threshold with more people in the urban and city than in rural - Massive urbanization - Despite the fact that these info are out of date, they are still prevalent What is driving this urbanization? ○ Growth is happening in most places, reason is very diverse ○ e.g. In China - industrialization -> urbanization ○ e.g. Sub Saharan Africa, middle east … urbanization not necessarily driven by industrialization, but other forces .. Such as global distribution of food, making some areas less sustainable, 'push-factors' of migration (people pushed off the land by changing food production and distribution) ○ Civil wars (most wars are drivers) ○ Droughts - e.g. climate change and effects it has on rural ○ Shifting patterns of land tenure (push small holders off land and rural areas) ○ Generations shift, people are selling thousands of hectares of land - Cities growing world wide, but not evenly - 95% population growth until 2050, is expected to be in urban areas in developing countries - Population of cities are expected to double to 4 billion over the next generation The City in Modernization Theory - 1950s theory ○ e.g. W.W. Rostow and Samuel Huntington ○ Viewed development as a linear process along a single path, Countries would develop through stages, as Europe and North America had, from more traditional to more modern, from more agricultural to more industrial, from more rural to more urban - After ww2, USA emerged as the wealthiest and most powerful country in the world ○ USA was rich ○ Beginning of Cold war -> The term used to describe the conflict between USSR (communist block) and USA ○ Fear of communism ○ USA gov't and scholars were actively promoting a certain view of development along capitalist lines ..  2 scholars that impacted this were WW. Rostow and Samuel Hungtinton  These two are modernization theorists  They explained and impacted the way cities were supposed to be - Institutional (failure to effectively demote govt), cultural (cling
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