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ANT348 Lec 5 Biopower, Citizenship and Health.pdf

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Sharon Kelly

Lec 5 Biopower, Citizenship and Health October-10-13 12:03 PM Thurs 2:30-4:30 office hours next week (in prepration fro midterm) Midterm: - 25%; 90minutes, bring Tcard - First section - short answer questions (15 pts) - Second section - one long essay question, choice given (10 pts) - All readings, lecture, in-class discussion up to and including Oct 17 (week 6) First week of class - health is political Second week - health is social (experience and process) - Experiences and meaning understood through social settings - Shaped by therapeutic practices Social constructionism: Important theoretical & methodological contributions to medical anthropology 1. Construction of biomedical knowledge as a social and cultural process 2. Dialectical relationship between biomedical knowledge and social relations 3. Discourse analysis as methodological approach (Foucault) *Berry talks about Foucault in introduction chapters Overview of Class: Biopolitics, Citizenship & Health - Understanding the shift: Sovereign Power vs Biopower - Subjectification - Example from Berry - Biopower & Segregation/ social hierarchization - Example of immigrant health - Discussion: biopolitics of Safe Motherhood Initiative - More examples: sexuality and the medicalization of menopause (Margaret Lock's "Local Biology") Governmentality = Foucault's distinct term arts and rationality of modern governance, connected to sovereign power; biopoweris a branch of governmentality focuses on the body - The right to 'take life, or let live' = sovereign power - Foucault is not specific to historical specificity - Shift from sovereign power to modern power Foucault locates in the 17th c, shift of power taking over life and land in general - Biopower works simultaneously through populations and individual bodies, these mechanisms of power Foucault's Biopower - Modern power works through: ○ Individual bodies - Anatomo-politics, and ○ Populations - Bio-politics - (characteristics of) Modern power is =  Productive  Decentralized  Internalized (subjectification = understanding one's place and context) Sovereign Power vs. Biopower Repressive Productive Unidirectional / top - down Multi-directional, decentralized, dispersed Can "take life or let live" Works through regulation of life itself Object: expansion of territory / wealth Object: control of life Embodied in the monarch (or repressive totalitarian state) Embodied in the work of institutions, expert knowledge and discourses, internalized practices of normalization and self-discipline (subjectification) - Subjectification = being a subject, but being subjected to power Subjectification - Judith Butler - "a double process of 'becoming subordinated by a power as well as of becoming a subject'" (Butler, 1997:2 quoted in Miklavcic, 2011:500) Berry explains p. 11 introduction chapter - Medical discourses have social significance, shape individuals subjectifity - Berry uses the example of the ministry's Rosario's death (?) - in Prologue/intro section ○ She lost a lot of blood, but Berry complicated this story by stating that no one saw any blood… and thus her family thought s he died of a heart attack, which led to suspicions of problems with her husband, … - Skilled tendants is the logical way of going about birthing mothers - Biopolitics, in Berry's perspective = Globalized biopolitics - Infant mortality has been made a more important than maternal mortality Foucault identified major states of intervention, alongside the management of birth .. He identified the management of citizenship, legal power Lectures Page 1 power - Modern power /biopower does not totally replace sovereign power - which is seen in some governments of power - Sovereign power = top, down and works on negation Miklavcic article - Example of Sovereign power existing along side biopower ○ Immigration - emphasis on security ○ e.g. Australia, prevent immigrants, people dying, ○ e.g. immigrants dying but people turning a blind eye - When the importance of the state overrides the important of human beings / bodies … demonstrates the power of sovereign power existing with bio power - Compulsion and conviction (-> power over life = sovereign power) - Sovereign power motivated by security issues - Neoliberalism - Process of deportation ○ Biopower and sovereign power seen through the relationship ○ Provision of healthcare, physicians are obligated to prevent loss of life (suicidal case of the Algerian immigrant) ○ Psychiatrist, expert knowledge is being mobilized to advocate ○ Biopolitics - - involvement of professional experts with their expert knowledge (p. 505) ○ Therapy is actively brought into the legal process - **manipulation of discourse** = central to how power is being exerted ○ Careful language of psychiatry is translated into that of law ○ Translating therapeutic language into language of law ○ Save people's lives, by framing their situation specifically in a way that can save them Appealing on humanitarian & Compassionate grounds: sovereign power and biopower - BIOPOWER: - SOVEREIGN POWER: Biopolitics of Safe Motherhood ○ How does an examination of the biopolitics of the global Safe Motherhood initiative help us to understand shifting fundin
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