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ANT348 Lec 6 Racialization and Medical Citizenship.pdf

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Sharon Kelly

Lec 6 Racialization and Medical Citizenship Final exam dec 11 October-17-13 12:10 PM Racialization in health Discourse - Biopower and subjectification (last week) ○ Subjectivities are formed in a particular time and place ○ In junction with professional knowledge, subjects are formed in the discourse and literature of biopolitics - Health actors and discourses of othering ○ Inherently "other" (meaning inherently different than the ones speaking) ○ Racialized ○ Represent them as less and not fully human, ○ Neglect and deny them of full care - Social and political effects : denial of medical citizenship, cultivating stigma and racism, detracting attention from historical and political-economic context of ill health - Slippage between social / cultural and biological (and innate) ○ All readings emphasize marganalization and poverty (cultural...make them appear innate) ○ Readings argued the discoursive ○ Neo-liberal entrenchment - Modern: traditional dichotomy Briggs - "Cultural Reasoning" - Culturalist discourse works with biological discourse in racizliation - e.g. global health experts conflate stereotypes with causal factors as scientific knowledge - Naturalization of poverty-disease by locating in behavior of poor people - Contributions of anthropologists ○ Emphasize cultural differences ○ Taking culture as an object of study ○ Analyze in cultural terms  e.g. myths of cholera in Venezuela - people were eating crabs  And suggests that it was contaminated which caused cholera ○ Use culture to shift responsibility for illness - Political economy for the context of whats going on - p.688 he describes the process ○ Cultural reasoning = mainstream way and taken for granted way of understanding the world ○ Appears to be different ○ Gloss of neo liberalism - Setting up a false plane to the validity of the knowledge ○ Emphasis on their behavior and culture that is innate and is their responsibility for their health issues On Modernity: Frederick Jameson (2002:8) quoted in Berry (:110) - "What is encouraged is the illusion that the West has something no one else possesses - but which they ought to desire for themselves. That mysterious something can then be baptized 'modernity' and described at great length by those who are called upon to sell the product in question." - Labelling something as modern vs something that is backward / tradition - Concept of modernity - Modern citizen and indigenous - One must comply with medical treatment = modern citizen, such that health professionals and patients are seeking their help - Educating clients in modern behavior is essential to the modernistic view - New set of clothing for new born babies is seen as modern subject ○ New clothing and cultural matter in respect to being a modern subject - One example of a non-modern subject ○ Women who had pre-clamsia (?) who had high blood pressure was asked to stay in the hospital for 4-6 weeks.. But she could because she had duties at home and staying at the hospital for such a long time was just not possible - Expectation of compliance with healthcare professionals is associated with modern - System of burial for deaths of new borns ○ Modern - - anything that is born and is considered a human being, and thus if it were to die, then it will be given a standard and respectful full burial ○ Non-modern/ Backward/ local / traditional- - no proper burial / formal burial is given to the babies or no burial is given for these babies who die young or at birth Medical Citizenship (Mark Nichter, 2008:183, cited in Goldad, 2009:487) - The "policies of entitlement and deservedness…[that] articulate what we deem to be the basic rights of citizens, what human rights are recognized for undocumented immigrants, and who gets excluded or sacrificed when health resources are rationed or restricted." Context of Globalization and Neoliberal Restructuring - Transnational capitalism ○ Lack of employer accountability, transnational oil export companies - Foreign debt ○ Leverage - Labor migration - Structural adjustment programmes and retrenchment of universal public health systems Lectures Page 1 - Structural adjustment programmes and retrenchment of universal public health systems - In Costa Rica - > funds were cut - Cultural and - Multinational companies employing workers seasonally, - Backbone of Venezuelan economy- - oil exporter ○ Fall in oil prices - triggered massive economic crisis ○ Accumulated a lot of debt ○ IMF came in and restructure ○ Cut back on funding on healthcare, encourage more private healthcare ○ Lack of money for drugs, healthcare professionals ○ Poorest people who are most affected, least options available to them Discussion Questions: 1. How do the discourses employed by health care workers in each of these accounts categorize racialized "others" as "less than fully human" (Briggs)?  Particular class is seen as 'other'  Parenting and care  Moral beings - questioning of how they care for their children  Discourse in blaming their own causing of cholera  Place, coming from particular regions, conflation of geography  Backwardness, how people are in environment - they drink from open wells like animals  Berry - - calling them implicitly non-modern  Hallmarks - can speak Spanish, and can participate in the system, and be a modern patient 2. How is health care bound up in the Costa Rican national identity and how has this relationship shifted over time?  Parasitic in the healthcare system, overusing and sometimes making up or exaggerating illnesses to get access  Exploiting health care system (treasured as national resort)  Fraudulent,  Blamed for expensive disease such as HIV/aids  Jobs and living conditions, they are working with pesticides and dangerous equipment with little to no protection and no insurance  Crowded living conditions - living space is provided by employe
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