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Tania Li (16)
Lecture 6

Lecture 6 - Healthcare Systems and Processes of Other-ing - October 17.docx

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Tania Li

October 17, 2013. Lecture 6 - Healthcare Systems and Processes of Other-ing: Stigmatization and Racialization Racialization in Health Discourse  Biopower works through Subjectification (last week) o A double process of becoming subordinated, by becoming a power AND a particular kind of subject o Subjectivities are formed in particular types of times and places  Health actors and discourses of othering o Making racialized groups responsible for their own social suffering and illness o Represent them as less than human and therefore undeserving of care  Morally suspect and illegal in terms of non-citizens o Not just a language game, by calling it discourse does not minimize it to just the language level, has serious material implications as well  Social and political effects: denial of medical citizenship, cultivating stigma and racism, detracting attention from historical and political-economic context of ill health  Slippage between social/cultural and biological o Political as well, etc.  These processes of racialized discrimination have been reinforced through neoliberalism and globalization Briggs – “Cultural Reasoning”  Culturalist discourse works with biological discourse in racialization o E.g. global health experts conflate stereotypes with causal factors as scientific knowledge  Naturalization of poverty-disease by locating in behaviour of poor people o That their innate behaviour is at fault for infection  Contributions of anthropologists o Through describing differences between cultures, allows for a way of explaining things that seem liberal but are also still racializing o Cultural reasoning becomes both common knowledge and institutional resource o Blatantly racist representations appear to be liberal, understanding, accurate, reasonable, etc. On Modernity: Fredrik Jameson quoted in Berry (:110)  “What is encouraged is the illusion that the West has something no one else possess – but which they ought to desire for themselves. That mysterious something can then be baptized “modernity” and described at great length by those who are called upon to sell the product in question”  Invokes Foucault in the question of citizenship and what a citizen is  In order to be seen as a proper modern citizen, one must comply with medical treatment; something professionals are striving for in modern provision of services, but also expecting cooperation and compliance o Inherent aspect of education in this  Non-compliance labels patients as being too traditional, backwards, indio bruta  Modernity in conflict in the example of the stillborn fetus o Responsibility of the fetus is determined to some extent by age; a process that is modern in how the age would be found out o Whether or not (had the baby been alive) it would thrive and live with or without technology that the hospital didn’t even have o Etc. Medical Citizenship  The “politics of entitlement and deservedness… [that] articulate what we deem to be the basic rights of citizens, what human rights are recognized for undocumented immigrants, and who gets excluded or sacrificed when health resources are rationed or restricted” – Mark Nichter? Context of Globalization and Neoliberal Restructuring  Multinational companies employing workers they want to be “flexible” since they need to make more money o Women are working jobs in which work/harvest periods last 3-4 months, and in order to receive employment paid health insurance one must be working for at least 3 months in a given position  Venezuela’s economy was based on oil, 80s gave way to downfall for oil market, Venezuela suffered in a cutback in funding; cutback on healthcare  Transnational capitalism o What happens to agricultural sectors when big companies come in and dominate all the land  Foreign debt o Venezuela and oil, for example  Labour migration  Structural Adjustment Programmes and retrenchment of universal public health systems Discussion  1. How do the discourses employed by health care workers in each of these accounts categorize racialized “others” as “less than fully human” (Briggs)? o Geography
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