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Lecture 1.docx

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Gary Coupland

Coming to America (and Canada): Beringia and Late Pleistocene Cultures of the North Pacific  Pacific Northwest- the area Northwestern North America; includes: Aleutian Islands, South Coastal Alaska, Northwest Coast Cultures area, California, Intermountain Plateau (interior regions of B.C., Washington, Oregon)  Key pre-contact cultural characteristics; no agriculture; maritime focus; CHG  Complex hunter-gatherer societies with 3 different classes decided at birth by who your parents were (nobility, commoners and slaves) very entrenched systemic order  Some cultures had a nobility and a class of society and people who did not inherent titles (commoners) and they also had slaves  Chinook= 1 of 6 species of Pacific Salmon  No agriculture due to climate, (too much rain) soil is poorly developed, no need, mountainous landscape etc.  Tagged B.C. salmon has been recovered off the coast of Japan (they swim a long way out to sea) Coming to America  Archaeologists debate when (i.e., how early) the First People came to the New World, but not where- Beringia (N.E. Asia/ Alaska)  Therefore, the First People of the Pacific Northwest were the First Americans  Theoretical approach was big earlier this approach is called cultural ecology  Someone had the idea that you could take North America and divide it into regions characterised by a primary food source (ex. plains of NA bison)  Entry into the new world was from the far, far NW otherwise known as Berinigia the date is controversial and intensely debated by archaeologists  As the North Atlantic iced up people crossed using boats from NW Europe to NE America at the end of the Pleistocene, also possible was that the small migratory founding population formed the now vibrant population in North and South America (most indigenous people don’t accept this hypothesis)  The question of how, when and why humans first entered the Americas is of intense interest to archaeologists and anthropologists, and has been a subject of heated debate for centuries. Several models for the Paleo-Indian settlement of America have been proposed by various academic communities. Modern biochemical techniques, as well as more thorough archaeology, have shed progressively more light on the subject.  Current understanding of human migration to and thro
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