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Lecture 3

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Gary Coupland

LECTURE 3 – January 21, 2013 South of the Ice - Paisley Cave o South-central Oregon, system of five caves o Cave 5, excellent preservation (bones, basketry, cordage, human coprolites) o Dated hearth, 2 metres deep, 12.7-14.3 ka (could be the oldest site in western north America, south of ice)  Cooking hearth possibly o Human coprolites yielded ancient DNA (A, B haplogroups), dated 12,300 RCYBP (thought to be ca. 1000 years older than Clovis)  has pre-Clovis material present but hasn’t been dated as pre-Clovis - Clovis in the Pacific Northwest o Fluted points found throughout PNW, usually as isolated surface finds o Wenatchee (Richey-Roberts) Site  A cache of finished and unfinished Clovis points (and other tools) in central Washington  Dated to ca. 13 ka; fauna includes mammoth and mastodon(?), tusks used as tools - Post-Clovis in the Pacific Northwest o Several post-Clovis, terminal Pleistocene cultural traditions in the PNW:  Microblade Tradition (north)  Pebble Tool/Old Cordilleran Tradition (central)  Paleocoastal Tradition (south) - The Microblade Tradition o Found mainly in far N.W. (south-central Alaska, southern Yukon, northern BC) o Derived from Denali and ultimately from Dyuktai, 11.5-6 ka o Technology: microblades (some used as inset blades in slotted bone points), wedge- shaped cores, rare bifaces o Coastal sites imply maritime adaptation - The Pebble Tool Tradition o Term coined by R. Carlson for sites, 11.5-6 ka in southwestern BC, coastal Washington o Technology: pebble (core and flake) tools, leaf-shaped points, no microblades o Microblade and Pebble Tool traditions “meet” along central coast of BC; key site is Namu (main coastal site)  there are sites with evidence for this tradition present more inland as well o Both coastal and interior sites; faunal remains include sea mammals, elk, deer, fish, suggesting flexible, local adaptations  diversified hunting economy - Both coastal and inland sites with both the microblade and the pebble tool traditions  adaptation to a marine environment hasn’t been made yet – interior and coastal regions both show these traditions so they cannot be looked at as exclusively coastal or exclusively interior - The Old Cordilleran Tradition o Thought by some to be synonymous with Pebble Tool tradition o Thought to have originated in post-glacial Plateau, ca. 11 ka; possible derived from Clovis (Wenatchee?); includes Windust and Cascade Phases (with stemmed stone projectile points – different from the Pebble Tool tradition)  Believe early phases developed in the plateau region and that this tradition developed directly from Clovis (oldest sites of Cordilleran present in the plateau)  Thought to have started as big game hunting tradition with these stemmed points and then later on, begin to see spread of this technology to the coast (get sites like Glenrose at this point) o Some groups migrated to coast (ca. 9-10 ka), developed mixed big game hunting and maritime adaptation (ex. Glenrose Cannery site – no microblades found here – find leaf shaped points though at these coastal sites) - Carlson believed that the Pebble Tool tradition was directly a result of southwestern migration (to the coast/coastal migration) – same for Microblade tradition, but he thought that this tradition came later than the Pebble Tool tradition – while the Old Cordilleran tradition was thought to have derived from the interior region - The Dalles, Five-Mile Rapids o Pebble Tool/O.C. site, lower Columbia River; intensive salmon fishing, 9.3 ka o Roadcut site, very important culturally because it’s well known for salmon fishing – as salmon enter from salt water to fresh water and then migrate up river, this is the first canyon/rapids that they encounter - Paleocoastal Tradition o Some archaeologists have identified Paleocoastal tradition, referring to early sites along southern and central California c
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