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Lecture 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Gary Coupland

Week 2- January 14 ANT314 Northeast Asia: Archaeological Evidence from Western Beringia  Yana Rhinoceros Horn site (ca. 32ka)- Earliest evidence of modern humans in an artic environment with sophisticated UP technology. Chipped stone, bone. This means human colonization of far north occurred during the warm period before LGM (ca. 22ka). This site is important mainly for the technology, the hunting of large bodied big gamed mammals and the dates as it establishes humans in the far north of Asia during the interglacial period  Ushki Lake site-Southern Kamchatka Peninsula, 5 sites with the oldest component (7) originally dated to 16,8ka, now re-dated at 13.4ka: technology typical of Late UP of Siberia: small chipped stone bifaces, large wedge-shaped cores, but no microblades, the date states that if you have people that early on the western side of Beringia then why not the eastern of Alaskan side of the Beringia as well, component 6 technology adds microblades (13.2-11.2ka). The obsidian from multiple sources suggests a highly mobile lifestyle. As the technology evolves the cores become smaller and smaller creating microblade technology. High quality stone is used for microblades such as obsidian, quartz, chert, basalt etc. as it allows the tool maker much more precision over the end product. Each volcano that produces obsidian produces obsidian with a slightly different chemical components  Dyuktai Cave, Dyuktai Culture- located on the Aldan River; occupational sequence 30-10kn spans entire Siberian UP, the culture was represented by the late occupation of Dyuktai cave, 14-13ka. The technology was of microblades, bifacial knives, burins and triangular points. The lifestyle was that of small groups which were highly mobile with a broad spectrum of big game hunting and small game fishing, broad subsistence economy. Russians first excavated and North American archaeologists were not allowed to see Dyuktai cave until after the excavation was completed  Kokorevo- Dated 13.12ka; considered by many to be a regional variant of the late Dyuktai culture and is characterized by a large blade industry; evidence of steppe bison hunting at type site  Afontova (Mal’ta)- dated 22-12ka: may be ancestral to Dyuktai, although the site is much further west with a wide variety of edge-trimmed flaked tools  Lake Baikal Region- Central Siberia, UP sites dating to 25ka has large permanent settlements,; houses made of poles, sod, flagstones and large mammal bones. They hunted mammoth, bison, rhino, reindeer in arctic tundra environment Routes  Beringia was a refugium, largely
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