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Lecture 6

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Gary Coupland

LECTURE 6 – February, 11, 2013 Southern NWC: Oregon Coastal Culture Three Stages of “Coastal” Culture - Lyman and Ross see 3 stages of development of Oregon coast culture during Holocene: 1. Pre-Littoral (Pre-marine), 10-3 ka  good example is Dalles 2. Early Littoral (Early Marine), 5/3-1.5 ka 3. Late Littoral (Late Marine), 1.5 ka – contact o This model adapted from older Kroeber model for entire NWC (early 20 century)  believed NWC starts as adaptation to river environments (settings) and then develops/elaborates as people move downriver to the coast – early Littoral would be an adaptation to estuaries and river mouths – fully developed NWC is seen as a fully developed sea-going maritime adaptation) o Key resource available during this time period is salmon Pre-Littoral (Pre-Marine) Stage - Ross: these cultures probably… o Of interior origin (Old Cordilleran); o Some sites located on coast (ex. Tahkenitch Landing) o Often on high bluffs, overlooking the ocean, but not really direct access to the coast o Probably seasonal occupations (move down river seasonally sometimes o But surprisingly little use of coastal resources (may have moved down river to coastal sites seasonally but still hunting terrestrial mammals, not doing much fishing) Early Littoral Stage - Lyman: shift to coastal resources beginning as early as 5 ka - Sites typically found in river estuaries, with seasonal mobility around estuary - Diffuse economy: wide range of resources, mainly available in estuary, close to shore; salmon not a key resource (making use of all resources available to them, but not specializing in any particular resource – especially in salmon, although it’s highly available – not yet a key resource) - Especially on southern north-west coast, sites not truly coastal o Close but not quite on coast, sort of inland, forms a coastal plain – not wide but enough that when river comes down from the mountains, they flatten out and river slows down, sediments from river drops and forms river delta - Littoral Period settlement pattern as depicted by Lyman o During late summer/winter, people moved towards estuaries (salmon fishing high here) o Spring to early summer they stay along the coast or they move more inland Umpqua/Eden Site - Located in Umpqua R. estuary, central Oregon coast; occupied by 3.1 ka - Thin shell midden layers (mussels, clams) a part of the diet but not a big part of the subsistence, not intensive use of this resource  emphasis on harbor seal, waterfowl; also Stellar sea lions, sea otters, deer; variety of fish, salmon present but not dominant - Technology: now emphasizes bone tools, including harpoons, over stone tools (reflects shift to sea mammal hunting?) o New technology also includes ground stone technology (bone and ground!)  technology changes from chipping to grinding, from stone to bone Palmrose Site - Just south of the mouth of Columbia R.; dated 2.5-1.8 ka - Includes remains of large, rectangular, semi-subterranean house, 12x6 m – considered the oldest “big house” on NWC - Multiple interior hearths reflect 100’s of years of occupation (diachronic view), but also multi- family occupancy, each family keeping o
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