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Lecture

ANT100Primates.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT100Y1
Professor
Patrick Vitale
Semester
Winter

Description
Primate behaviour and ecology Primates are mammals - warm blooded (able to adjust our body temperature), having hair, feeding milk to young Pimates differ from most mammals by having - grasping hands and feet - collarbones - radius and ulna - forward facing eyes and stereoscopic vision Primate activity pattern - nocturnal - active at night - diurnal - active during day - crepuscular active at dawn and dusk - cathemeral - active any time of day and night Primate Diets - most eat fruit, leaves, flowers and insects - few species specialize by eating mostly or only leaves which requires special gut adaptations or insects - generally, larger bodied species can eat more leaves whereas smaller bodied species can eat more insects Strepsirhine Characteristics - dental tooth comb - groom themselves and others using that comb - moist rhinarium - unfused mandibular and frontal symphases - mandible = jaw - tapedum lucidum - extra reflective layer in the back of eye that allows them to have better vision in night time or in low light - postorbitol bar - lemuroidea and lorisoidea Lemur - Madagascar and Comoro, boreal, quadraped (all-four), terrestrial (come to ground), nocturnal, female dominance, varied diet Loris - sub-Saharan Africa and SEAsia, Lorises and galagos, aboreal quadropeds, nocturnal, omnivore Haplorhine Characteristics - dry nose - retinal fovea - eyes adapt for great colour perception - postorbitol closure - eyes encased in bone except in front - fused mandibular symphases (except for tarsiers) Tarsiiformes - one genus (Tarsiers) - found in SEAsia - small body size, eyeballs larger than brain - nocturnal - entirely faunivorous Platyrrhines (Neotropical monkeys) - central and southAmeirca - tail acts as a 5th limb - cebidae, atelidae and callitrichidae - most entirely aboreal Catarrhini (old world monkeys and apes) - Africa, Asia and SoutheastAsia - cercepithecidae, hylobatidae, hominidae - variety of diets, social organizations and adaptations Human beings (homo sapiens) - habitual, upright, bipedal - use of forelimb for manipulation, carrying and throwing, rarely used for locomotion - enormous expansion of brain volume Body Size - scaling area (L x W) and volume (L x W x D) changes at different rates - animal doubles in size it will become eight times heavier - small animals have greater heat (energy) loss than larger animals Primate Habitats - tropical rainforests, dry forests, deserts and savannas - primary vs secondary forests - ecological niche - all the things that they do in t
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