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Lecture 5

ANT369 Week 5.docx

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ANT369- Week 5 Lecture Global Health and Bio-medicalization • Medical anthropology= study of disease, health problems, health care systems, and theories about illness in different cultures and ethnic groups  Disease= a scientifically identified health threat  Illness= a condition of poor health perceived or felt by an individual or community  Health-care system= beliefs, customs, specialists and techniques • Theories about the causes of illness:  Personalistic disease theories= illness caused by agents such as sorcerers, witches, ghosts or ancestral spirits  Emotionalistic disease theories= illness caused by extreme emotional experiences (e.g. Trauma, the loss of a loved one etc.) characteristic of these diseases is super-psychological responses like lack of motivation, laziness etc. what causes this is loss of soul where the whole soul is gone and the only way to retrieve the lost soul is to enlist the help of a specialists a shaman (shamanism is the precursor to medicine)  Naturalistic disease theories= impersonal explanations of illness, no concept of the supernatural, illness is caused by identifiable natural causes (e.g. having an accident) • Biomedical Model  Scientific epistemology (valued knowledge is derived from experimentation) o Natural basis of illness: natural science  The human body and its function o Claude Bernard (1813-1878) founder of modern physiology o An introduction of the study of experimental medicine (1865) o Homeostasis= health (maintaining internal body harmony= new concept of health)  Epidemiology (studying the distribution of diseases) o Illness in population/ demography • Cultural- Interpretive Model  Transcending the limits of the biomedical model  Examining the “cultural” basis of illness and health  Phenomenology • Critical Medical Anthropology Model  Health and social inequality  Health and capitalism  Medicalization (medicine given to individuals and also, the process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as medical conditions, and thus become the subject of medical study, diagnosis, prevention, or treatment) • Shamanism  Universal mode of healing  Doctor, priest, social worker, mystic  Contact with spirit world  Same curing odds as MDs  Shared meaning between patients and healer is essential (being able to understand) • Paul Farmer 2004 An anthropology of structural violence  What is/was: – Structural violence= a form of violence where some social structure or social institution may harm people by preventing them from meeting their basic needs. Institutionalized elitism, ethnocentrism, classism, racism, sexism, adultism, nation alism, heterosexismand ageism are some examples of structural violence – Liberation theology= a movement in Christian theology, developed mainly by Latin American Roman Catholics, that emphasizes liberation from social, political, and economic oppression as an anticipation of ultimate salvation (60s and 70s) – Impact of “resistance” – Effects of specialization in social sciences – The role of France in Haitian history= wealth of France came from Haiti – The history of US involvement= the biggest shits, didn’t support Haiti diplomatically, created diplomatic embargo, invaded them in 1915 and established hegemony over Haiti and turned it into an assembly line for US manufactured goods, very cheap labour – Duvalier= (dictatorship) also known as 'Papa Doc' Duvalier, was the President of Haiti from 1957 until his death in 1971. He opposed a military coup d'état in 1950, and was elected president in 1957 on a populist and black nationalist platform. His rule, based on a purged military, a rural militia known as the Tonton Macoute and the use of a personality cult and voodoo, resulted in the murder of an estimated 30,000 Haitians and the exile of many more. Ruling as President for Life from 1964 until his death in 1971, Duvalier was initially known for successfully fighting diseases, gaining him the nickname 'Papa Doc' – Aristide= is a Haitian former Catholic priest of the Salesian order and politician who served as Haiti's first democratically elected president. A proponent of liberation theology, Aristide was appointed to a parish in Port-au-Princein 1982 after completing his studies. He became a focal point for the pro-democracy movement first under Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier and then under the military transition regime which followed -AIDS theory= came from Haiti, the
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