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Lecture 2

lecture 2 biology

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University of Toronto St. George
Christopher Watts

ANT100Y1Y Lecture 2 Principles of Evolution Modern Synthesis of Evolution - how evolution works at level of phenotypes, genes and population - microevolution and macroevolution Microevolution - go to the smallest part DNA Æ RNA Æ Protein Cell - somatic cells: most cells in body except sex cells - gametes: sex cells - cytoplasm: complex mix of membrane, and tiny structures called organelles - nucleus: contains hereditary material Æ chromosomes - also called head office Chromosomes - paired-rod shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit traits from gene to gene - whole bunch of DNA - pull out and you can see the genetic code DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid - blueprint - molecules like twisted ladder - 4 nucleotide bases 1. Adenine (A) 2. Guanine (G) 3. Thymine (T) 4. Cytosine (C) - A always bonds with T, and G always bonds with C - Sugar phosphate background - Hydrogen bonded bases - ENTIRE complex system RNA - ribonucleic acid - worker/helper - some functions: 1. dictate synthesis of proteins that perform variety of functions such as which protein gets made 2. regulate expression of other genes 3. work with ribosomes (factory) that manufacture proteins 4. transport amino acids to ribosomes for creation of proteins, brings in building blocks 5. RNA does have Thymine, instead there is Uracil Proteins - linear sequence of amino acids, building blocks of cells - ex. Haemoglobin: carries O2 around body - each protein has specific function determined by DNA - eg. Catalysts of all biochemical reactions is done by enzymes, which contain proteins (digestion) and many more - ex. caffeine given to cat, can kill it if protein to break substance is not present - we need 20 proteins to live - some we make, others we get from other sources ex. food - ex. Vitamin D can’t be made in ____ Steps to make protein 1. Replication 2. Transcription: RNA makes copy of blue-print 3. Translation: RNA + ribosomes = PROTEIN Transcription - synthesis of single strand of RNA at unwound section of DNA with one of the DNA strand serving as template - result: genetic information encoded from DNA is transferred to RNA - mRNA carries information to cytoplasm, then protein synthesis occurs via translation Codons - genetic information encoded in sequence of three nucleotide determined codos - ex. AAT or GCA - sequence of AATTGC results in mRNA sequence: UUAACG - code shows amino acids Translation - tRNA (transfer RNA) is information adapter molecule - direct interface between amino-acid sequence of protein and info in mRNA - therefore, decodes information in mRNA - acceptor stem is site where specific amino-acid is attached, Anticodon reads information in a mRNA sequence by base pairing Genetics and Heredity - gene: chemical unit of heredity - phenotype: observable, physical appearance of organism may or may not reflect genotype or total genetic constitution - genotype: the total complement of inherited traits or genes of an organism - alleles: 1 member of a pair of genes Homozygous - posses 2 identical genes or alleles in corresponding location or a pair of chromosomes - ex. YY or yy Heterozygous - posses different genes or alleles in corresponding location or as a pair of chromosomes - ex. Yy Dominant allele - allele of gene pair that is always phenotypically expressed in heterozygous form - ex. Y expressed phenotypically paired with y Æ Yy Recessive allele - allele phenotypically suppressed in heterozygous form and expressed only if it is in homozygous form - ex. y only expressed phenotypically when paired with y Æ yy - eg. madibular tory Y – dominant, yellow y – recessive, green Y y Y
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