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Lecture 5

lecture 5 bio

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University of Toronto St. George
Christopher Watts

Lecture 5 Hominines, Human Variation, & Forensic Anthropology The first real humans: Australopithecines - Australopithecines Anamensis - Australopithecines Afarensis - Australopithecines Africanus - Australopithecines Aethiopicus - Australopithecines Boisei - Australopithecines Robustus Australopithecines Anamensis - Kanopoi, Kenya - 4.2 -3.9 Million Years Ago - Tooth row is parallel (ape like) - Partial tibia(knee bone) provides strong evidence for bipedality - Primitive (ape like) cranial morphology and a derived (human like) postcranial morphology Australopithecines Afarensis - Ethiopia (Hadar, Omo and Fejej) and Tanzania (Laetoli) - 4.2 3 MILLION YEARS AGO - Many specimens - Complex morphology exhibiting some ape like traits (ex. saggittal crests) and hominine-like traits (e.g. valgus knee) - Single, sexually dimorphic species or 2 species Laetoli footprints - Tanzania - 3.6 MILLION YEARS AGO here - Demonstrate that early hominines were bipedal - Big toes hardly diverged from the rest of foot, unlike in chimpanzees - Gait was heel-strike followed by toe-off; the way modern humans walk Australopithecines Africanus - Various sites in South America - 3.0 -2.3 MILLION YEARS AGO - Average brain size is 458 cc - Dental features differ from those in Australopithecines afarenis - Postcranial features similar to those in Australopithecines afarenis Australopithecines Aethiopicus (Black skull) - West Turkana, Kenya - 2.7-2.3 MILLION YEARS AGO - Large face, huge zygomatics, large skull crests, and enormous teeth - Remarkably primitive hominine at such a late date Australopithecines Boisei - Olduvai, Tanzania - 2.2-1.2 MILLION YEARS AGO - hyper-robust hominine - Morphology broadly similar to that seen in Australopithecines aethiopicus - Contemporaneous with members of the genus Homo
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