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Lec 4 primates.doc

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ANT101 PRIMATES: Our Contemporary Relatives & The Basics of Primatology PRIMATOLOGY  The Study of non-human primate biology & behavior  Certain characteristics all primates share Analogies  Structures that are superficially similar  Share a similar function  Built from different parts  Do not pass through similar stages during embryonic development  organisms do not share a common ancestor  Most likely due to a common environment  Not representative of an evolutionary relationship Homologies  Structures possessed by 2 different organisms that arise in a similar fashion  Pass through similar stages during embryonic development  organisms that share a common ancestor  May serve different functions  Represents an evolutionary relationship All Primates: Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Order Primate  Primate Characteristics 1. Arboreal  Ability to climb trees 2. Stereoscopic vision  Three dimensional vision (depth perception) 3. Binocular vision (forward facing eyes) 4. Color vision  Shared by all primates 5. Fovea centralis  Contributes to great peripheral vision 6. Highly developed sense of touch 7. Enlarged, complex brain 8. Retention of less specialized dentition 9. Primate Skeleton  Skull features  Globular skull formation leads to better posture for arboreal living  High vaulted cranium  Forward shifted foramen magnum  Foramen magnum is hole where skull attaches to spine  Reduced snout  Post orbital bar (enclosed eye socket)  Humans have “S” shaped spine, gorillas and chimpanzees have “C” shaped spine  Retention of Clavicle (collarbone)  Clavicle supports shoulder joint  Brachiation  Pentadactyly (possessing 5 digits)  Prehensibility 10.Reproduction & Care of Young  Able to breed throughout the year  No Breeding season  Reduction in the number of offspring born at one time to a female  Longer period of infant dependency on the mother  Usually 1 offspring at a time (not large litters) **Need to know the characteristics of the animal for identification Suborder: 1. Strepsirhini (Lemurs & lorises)  First Primates  Primitive  Developed olfactory  Rhinarium  Moist fleshy pad at end of nose, increases olfactory senses  Long snout  Dental comb  Do not have a fully enclosed eye, but does have post orbital bar  Grooming claw  Leaping & clinging Infraorder: Lemuriformes Superfamily: a. Lemuroidea (lemur)  Madagascar  Do not have coloured vision Lorisoidea (loris)  Africa, S & E Asia  Nocturnal 2. Haplorhini (tarsiers, monkeys, apes & humans) Compared to strepsirhini: • Generally larger body size • Larger brain • Rounded skull • Eyes rotated to the front • Bony plate at back of eye orbit • No rhinarium • Chisel like incisors • Increased parental care • Increased maturation • More mutual grooming • PROSIMIAN  Lemurs, loris, and tarsiers Infraorder: 1. Tarsiformes (tarsiers) Haplorrhine most like the lemur Primitive features • Small body; grooming claw; large ears; unfused mandible • Nocturnal insectivore • Stable pair bonds Haplorrhine features • No rhinarium • Eye sockets enclosed in bone • Unique features • Enormous eyes • Rotate head 180 degrees • Elongated tarsal bone to leap 2.Anthropoidea (all monkeys, apes and humans) Parvorder: 1.Platyrrhini (new world monkey) (
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