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University of Toronto St. George

ANT101 Human Diversity History of the study of human variation Linneaus 1758 classificatory Separated humans into 5 categories • Americanus  Red, Ill tempered, contempt and free black hair • Europaeus  White serious smart strong active blond blue govern by law • Asiaticus  yellow melancholy greedy • Afer  black impassive • Monstrosus  Accommodates for any other deformities Linneaus could not get over his personal biases when examining humans Count de Buffon “Varieties of the Human Species (1749) • Descriptive • Rejected classifications (of humans) • Emphasized unity of species • Emphasize the holistic of humans • Behavioral & cultural biases • Still adhered to cultural biases in his descriptions Problems in classifying humans Humans are both the investigators & subjects Inequalities & injustices Eugenics Goal was for the betterment of the human species by the selective breeding for favorable traits Cultural biases came into play, different cultures have different favorable traits Important figures in Eugenics Francis Galton • 1869 “Heredity Genius” • Prominence is inborn • Statistics • Used biology to reinforce social prejudices Charles Davenport • 1911 “Heredity in relation to eugenics” • Established eugenics in US scientific program • Heredity can be statistical proof of evolution wanting favorable traits How was eugenics to be carried out? • Restriction of immigration • Restriction of the propagation of undesirable heritable traits • Encouragement of breeding between individuals with desirable genetic traits Eugenics took hold in National Socialist Germany Ernest Hooton  focused on Polymorphism over polytypism, broke away from eugenics movement • Broke from eugenics movement • Polymorphism-a species with alternative forms (alleles) of particular genes (bio variation within a population) Polytypism - The study of differences between groups Polymorphic species is divided into geographically dispersed populations The expression on genetic variants in different frequencies in different populations of a species Distinction between racial & racist studies Racial • Examinations of biological differences among human groups Racist • Biological differences among human groups to reinforce social divisions Carleton Coon • “The Origins of Races” 1963 • Divided modern humans into 5 subspecies, performed many measurements of humans an
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