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Lec 10 Early homo.doc

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University of Toronto St. George

ANT101 THE GENUS HOMO Test Chapter 5, 8, 9, and 10 (No Dating Methods) A lot on Australopithecine Early homo 2.5-1.6 mya • Louis Leakey (1960) • Olduvai Gorge, Northern Tanzania • 1.8 mya • Homo habilis  Direct link to humans, used standardized tools Significance of the name Early tool makers Ancestors to modern humans Other Plio-Pleistocene sites EAST AFRICA • Omo, Southern Ethiopia • Koobi Fora, • KMN-ER 1470 – Richard Leakey • Olduvai Gorge SOUTH AFRICA • Sterkfontein • Swartkrans General trends of early homo in comparison to Australopithecines CRANIAL ANATOMY • Brain expansion 600-800 cc • Thin walled – no crests • Rounded vault • Weakly projecting ridges • Variable facial proportions between individuals KNM ER 1470 (homo rudolfensis?) • Koobi Fora, Richard Leakey (1972) • 1.9 mya • **752 cc Cranial Capacity • Rounded cranial vault • No heavy crests • **Robust face like australopithecine • Back teeth still quite large (but < australopithecines) Associated crude stone tools More human like brain organization Evolutionary Role played by early homo TRENDS: Increased encephalization (Cranial capacity increase) Dental reduction Tool making Must know tool technology for each homo species Opportunistic tools 5 – 2.5 mya  Items not shaped/standardized at all, just used Manuports: Unaltered objects carried some distance before use. Made of material not naturally found in environment. (A rock that is not naturally from the environment) LOWER PALEOLITHIC (old stone age) Approx. 2.5 mya – to 200 kya 1. Important in brain evolution 2.
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