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Lec 12 Homo heidelbergensis & Neandertals.doc

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ANT101 homo heidelbergensis (transitional forms) Archaic homo sapiens Homo heidelbergensis (transitional forms)  Transition from Homo ergaster to sapien  @ 800 ­ 600,000 ya • Homo erectus gave rise to a bigger brained descendent • Probably occurred in Africa or Western Eurasia Primitive features • Prominent brow ridges • Robust jaw • Thick cranial bones • Pronounced neck muscles • Receding forehead Derived features • Brain expansion (1212cc average) • Globular head shape • Decrease in molar size • Brow ridge curved • Decreased facial prognathism • Large broad nose • Reduced postorbital constriction • Wider cranial vault • No sagittal keel Transitional Sites AFRICA Bodo, Ethiopia • 600,000 ya Primitive • Low vault • Massive brow ridge • Large neck muscles • Larger teeth Derived • Thinner bones of vault • More modern cranial base ASIA (as yet undiagnosed) 580,000 – 100,000 ya Yunxian 580,000 • Oldest Asian site • Mosaic of h. erectus & h. sapien traits  Primitive • Robust brow ridge Derived • Thin cranial vault • 1390 cc  • Globular skull • Gracile face EUROPEAN Transitional Sites 500,000 – 250,000 ya Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain Sima de los Huesos • Pit of Bones  12m deep, first evidence of deliberate disposable of remains • Animal bones mixed in • 325,000 – 200,000 ya • 32 individuals  found in specific pit/shaft  • 1125­1390 cc     Mauer, Heidelberg, German  • Mauer mandible  Provides prototype specimen for Homo heidelbergensis • 500,000 ya • HE – Robust, no chin • HS – Modern Tooth Size • Prototype specimen Gran Dolina, Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain Oldest h. heidelbergensis sites (homo antecessor?) • 800,000 ya • Reduced dentition and smaller jaw size • Separated brow ridges • Own species designation of Homo antecessor  Ceprano  , It ly 900­800,000 ya Early homo heidelbergensis (600,000 – 400,000 ya) No sagittal keel Double arched brow ridges Small post­orbital constriction Acheulean tool technology Striking platform method • Africa • Europe • India LEVALLOISIAN TECHNIQUE • Later h. heidelbergensis Middle Paleolithic 300/200,000 ya – common by 100,000 ya • Africa, Europe, Middle East & China • Movement towards more flaked tools, away from core tools • Stemmed points, composite tools, hafted spears, knives, scrapers Advantages over acheulean • Smaller, longer edged flakes • Sharper edges • More time efficient Prepared core Technique Carefully preparing stone core then producing finished implement with a single blow 1.Chip core around sides & top 2.Tortoise core produced 3.Well aimed blow at one end 4.Detach flake of predetermined size & shape Other cultural advancements of transitional forms • Hafting /composite tools  Made of more than one material (spear) • Attaching small stone bifaces & flakes to handles of wood • Spears & knives • Foreign raw materials o Stone > 300 km from source • Yellow & red pigments  o (iron oxide) o Common in Africa o Ritual • Indication of larger game hunters NEANDERTALS 300,000 – 30,000 ya Europe & West Asia Physi
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