Culture is adaptive
Culture shapes biology
- Culture allows humans to shape and express biological processes in unique ways
- eating foods, excreting waste, having sex, giving birth, death
- culture literally shapes biology
- diet, behaviour, body modification
Culture and scale
National culture as ""imagined community"- nation states charaacterized by
disconnection and diversity.
Popular culture, Civic culture create ties.
Facilitated by technology ( Radio, television, internet)
Different symbol-based patterns and traditions of particular group.
Extends beyond and across national borders
- Sports, social movement, human rights
New digital communities complicate distinction between sub and international.
Culture is contested, dynamic, changing
- Culture is power. Different groups struggle over whose values, beliefs, goals will be
Not computer code - culture provides framework, but people do not always follow
Ideal v.s Real Culture - E.GAre Canadians really polite?
Practices Theory - recognize that humans have agency diverse motives and degrees
Change ( is constant)
- Independent Invention
Frans Boas (1958 - 1942)
- Founder of modernAmerican anthropology
- Rejected evolutionary view and promoted idea that culture devoplop Cultural Relativism
- View that behaviour and beliefs of a culture should not be judged by the standards of
- Not amoral position but a methodological position.
- To understand another culture fully, you must try to see how people in that culture see
- C - R should not prevent moral judgment - judgment should be based on understanding no
DoingAnthropology: The art and ethics of ethnography
Fieldwork and modern anthropology
- Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in , and developed in reaction to, 19th
century " ethnology".
- Early colonial
- Ethnography is the firsthand, in-depth, personal study and representation (book,
article) of a particular culture.
- both research method, and a form of repre
- balancing emic and etic
history of ethnography
- distinctive methods emerged to deal with different contexts
- Large - scale compl