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Lecture 7

LECTURE 7 Development Anthropology.docx

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Victor Barac

ANT369H1 March 17, 2014 DEVELOPMENT Development Anthropology -only type of applied anthropology occurred in Development -cultural compatibility has improved, and makes these products financially successful 1. Culturally compatible economic projects are much more successful financially 2. Respond to locally perceived needs  local not as transparent as we assume 3. Involve men and women in planning and carrying out the changes that affect them  target community 4. Take advantage of traditional organizations  promotes traditional forms of development • -modernists in every society, advocate for development and this is the problem of Anthropology • -creation of the world bank and IMF established protocols to eliminate poverty in the world from WWI: history of development • -From the Geico, IMF and WB had programs that were based on sound business priniciples : Neoliberalism ( business oriented) the focus is on the way you make things profitable -> reduce the amt of spending • -along with development of Capitalist model there was the development of Communism in developing countries , it also was for modernity and tech development but was against capitalism Case Study: Growing Trees in Haiti • Critiques about the product of development who are anthropologists, development just an excuse for domination or imperialism 1. Deforestation, erosion, declining agricultural yields • Tree growing projects in Haiti, it is deforested bc of the sugar plantations, this leasds to soil erosion and depletion and thus decrease of agriculture yields ANT369H1 March 17, 2014 DEVELOPMENT • More ppl leaving the rural areas and moving to urban areas bc of lack of agriculture • Rural life is something from the past 2. Urban migration to capital city, Port‐au‐Prince • More ppl leaving the rural areas and moving to urban areas bc of lack of agriculture • Rural life is something from the past • Needed to have place to live 3. Increased demand for wood as building material - but no wood 4. Wood trees vs. fruit trees (NGOs vs. the state) • tried to give them fruit trees, there was over abundance of the fruits , only small portion of the fruit could ebs old, the fruit rotted and they couldn’t even make jam 5. Gerald Murray / USAID development project -brought in anthropologists to help aid the problem , he didn’t survey the peasants and what the peasants wanted -they assumed that from other models that the fruit tree had -furniture manufacture needed wood and wood trees were in demand they grow fast, any surplus of wood could be saved for subsistence for their own use or sold 6. Original goal: 3 million trees, 6,000 peasants 7. Result: 20 million trees, 75,000 peasants - development projects that actually work and affect ppls lives and their livelihoods ANT369H1 March 17, 2014 DEVELOPMENT David Mosse 2008 International Policy, Development Expertise, and Anthropology 1. Why does Mosse begin his essay with a discussion on poverty? -begins with a discussion of poverty b/c the ways that anthropologists approach development is by ignoring that capitalization actually influences poverty, undermine the belief that development can alleviate poverty in any ways even when the whole premise of development is to remove poverty - he wants to lift the vale off of development ( mask for capitalism) 2. What are the two basic ideas upon which contemporary development is based? • Neoliberalism : solving many life problems, solved better than Communism, promotes free trade and dropping of barriers, doesn’t want govt to subsidize prices, want equal players • New institutional economics order: initiatives that strive to make economic life more rational, regulated and accountable -Establishing rules that ppl will follow and providing incentives that ppl will follow - not to steal not to cheat etc. ; aka. Transparency 1. According to Mosse what is the function of the entire development aid system? • If we are not doing development what is the pt of having so many agency’s ; purpose is to promote ideas about how the world should be “ideology” , way of putting a nice face on capitalism • Against development and ppl working in development 2. What aspects of development should anthropology study? • Should look at the social basis of knowledge productions • What are the groups and individuals involved? ANT369H1 March 17, 2014 DEVELOPMENT • We can study this ethnographically that we can study the social basis of development • How successful has anthropology been , how much has anthropology studied the development system in the world 3. Why does development distrust anthropology? • Defactal criticism, anthropology should be criticizing from the start • Popular position within development Thomas Yarrow 2008 Paired Opposites: Dualism in Development and Anthropology 1. How has anthropology “... obscured important aspects of the processes through which development projects are enacted.” -anthropology of the mosse variety has obscured important process how is this? - all the focus is on the institutions and dismiss all the acts of individuals, there is a whole world that critics of development are missing -critic of development has become a cliché , form of defending ones territory , takes on prominent critics etc. - why does he attempt to cut them down to size and argue that their criticisms have some validity 2. Why does Yarrow dismiss prominent
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