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Archaeological Anthro, Dec 1st Lecture

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Ivan Kalmar

Lecture 5 Archaeology AnthropologyThe Archaeology of Complexity ANT 100 December 1 2011 Professor WattsSignificance of food production Last LectureCovered in class todayWhat is Complex SocietyRemember Lecture 2 Elman Service 1962 Primitive Social Organization where he talks about the various social forms from past and present Talks about tribes horticulture and agriculture similar to bandsbands highly mobile and chiefdoms not states but thats another one to coverHow can we categorise past societies Remember that this is not a blackandwhite system societies are much more complex than this criteria ChiefdomsLarger than tribes 500020000 peopleKinbased ranking under hereditary leader so not civil societies like some states its through genealogical channels But this ranking is typically under a chiefEconomies based on tributeredistribution so here people dont necessarily produce their own food and have privileges that allow some people to rely on othersDomesticnondomestic sitesArchaeological Example In Turkey CataEurope Eastern N America along the Mississippi River Mississippian and in SW N America Arizonay 4 cornersy States PreIndustrialLarger than chiefdoms generally 20000 people hierarchy under kingemperorClassbasedLaws bureaucracy taxation standing armies for the first timeCitiesAncient High Civilizations Mesopotamia ca 3200 BC southern Iraq Nile Valley ca 3000 BC s Egypt Indus Valley ca 2500 BC border of India and Pakistan N China ca 2000 BC Mesoamerica ca 1500 BC Maya and groups in highlands South America ca 1500 BC
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