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ANT100Y1: Lecture 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Shawn Lehman

20110929 CHAPTER 2 PRINCIPLES OF EVOLUTION Goals 1 Understand microevolution Genetic basis of inheritance and biological evolution Population genetics Natural selection Adaptation 2 Understand macroevolution Speciation How to read cladogram How evolution works on a grand scale The modern synthesisThe modern synthesis of evolution Focuses on how evolution works at level of phenotypes genes and populations Microevolution Macroevolution DNARNA proteinSomatic cells most cells in body except for sex cells Gametes sex cells sperm and ovum egg Cytoplasm complex mix of membranes and tiny structures called organelles Nucleus contains hereditary material known as chromosomes Chromosomes Paired rodshaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit traits from generation and generationDNADeoxyribonucleic acid nucleic acid used to store genetic information that codes for synthesis of proteins Four bases AdenineA GuanineG Cytosine C and Thymine T AT GC RNA Ribonucleic acid Molecules1 Dictate synthesis of proteins that perform a wide variety of functions in body 2 Regulate expression of other genes turn them on or off 3 Work with structures in cell ribosomes that are critical for manufacture of proteins 4 Transport amino acids to ribosomes for the creation of proteins Proteins y Linear sequences of amino acids building blocks of cells y Each protein has specific function determined by blueprint stored in DNA y Eg catalysis of all biochemical reactions is done by enzymes which contain protein digestion and many more
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