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Lecture 2

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Gary Coupland

LECTURE 2October 29 2009 Principles of Evolution GeneticsSomatic cells most cells in body except sex cellsGametes sex cells sperm and ovum eggCytoplams complex mix of membrane molecules and tiny structures called organellesNucleus contains hereditary material known as chromosomesChromosomesPaired rodshaped structures in cells nucleus containing genes that transmit traits from generation to generationHead office of genetic material made up entirely of DNA DNANucleic acid used to store genetic information that codes for the synthesis of proteins4 bases Adenine A Guanine G Cytosine C and Thymine Thydrogen bonded basesG with C A with Twith a sugar phosphate backboneBlueprint for protein productionRNA Molecule 1 Dictate synthesis of proteins that perform a wide variety of functions in the body 2 Regulate expression of other genes 3 Work with structures in cell ribosomes that are critical for manufacture of proteins 4 Transport amino acids to ribosomes for the creation of proteinsProteinsLinear sequences of amino acids that are building blocks of cells Each protein has specific function determined by blueprint stored in DNAEx Catalysis of all biochemical reactions is done by enzymes which contain proteinDNA REPLICATIONTRANSCRIPTIONRNATRANSLATIONPROTEIN Transcription Synthesis of single strand of ribonucleic acid mRNA messenger RNA at unwound section of DNA with one of DNA strands serving as a templateResult genetic information encoded in DNA transferred to RNAmRNA carries information into cytoplasm then protein synthesis occurs via translation
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