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Lecture 5

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University of Toronto St. George
Gary Coupland

LECTURE 5November 26 2009 Human Evolution and Variation Some Key Australopithecines The First Real Hominins Australopithecus anamensisKahapoi Kenya 4239 MYATooth row parallel apelike partial tibia provides evidence for bipedality Primitiveapelike cranial morphology derived humanlike post cranialAustralopithecus afarensisEthiopia Hadar Omo and Fejej and Tanzania Laetoli 4230 MYAa very successful speciesComplex morphology some apelike traits ex sagittal crests and homininlike traits ex valgus kneeLaetoli Footprints36 MYA in Laetoli TanzaniaDemonstrate that early hominins were bipedal big toes hardly diverged from the rest of foot unlike in chimpanzeesGait was heelstrike followed by toeoff way modern human walks Australopithecus africanus Various sites in South Africa 3023 MYAAverage brain size is 458cc indicative of bipedalismDental features differ from A afarensis but postcranial features similarAustralopithecus aethipopicusWest Turkana Kenya 2723 MYALarge face huge zygomatics large skull crests and enormous teeth Remarkably primitive hominin at such a late date more apelikeAustralopithecus boiseiOlduvai Tanzania 2212 MYAHyperrobust hominin contemporaneous with members of genus HomoMorphology broadly similar to that seen in A aethiopicusAustralopithecus robustus Swartkrans and Kromdraei South Africa 21 MYAAnother robust form Small anterior teeth large posterior teeth covered in thick enamelGracile and Robust Forms Gracile AustralopithecinesAust afarensis and Aust africanus Robust AustralopithecinesAust boisei Aust robustus and Aust aethiopicus
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