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Lecture 4

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University of Toronto St. George
Gary Coupland

ANT100Y1 Section 4 Lecture 4Thursday March 18 2010What is societyMalinowskis Functionalism last weekInstitutions make up society they come into society and why they exsist and stick aroundMalinowski form of functionalismoHuman beings have biological needs oCultural satisfies needs via institutionsoInstitutions create second order needs culturaloCulture satisfies needs in these needs in these institutionsinstitutions can include marriage procreation that lead to other instutions such as love happiness etcRadcliffeBrowns Functionalisminstitution x is done for Yinstitution x has an effect zz is beneficial to society wsince x is part of w x is reproducedinstitutions may have direct functions for which they were created in theory and address certain needsin the process of addressing those needs they have side effects that end up being beneficial to society and this institution persistsso even if an institution is not addressing a need very well it can survive with society because it address other kinds of needsM functbiological needsRb functsociety needsArgument against Bothtreats institutions in a steady state homeostaticinstitutions are only functional in societythey treat societies as being bounded these theories came out of a context where antrhopol studied village communities self reproducing societies and unchangingthats why there is so much argument against these theoriesthese assumptions are ethnocentricHow are societies held togetherThere is a general society where social relationships are held togetherSolidarityEmile Durkheim two kindsoMechanical solidarity the form that pertains to small scale societies primitive village where everything is structured and have set values tasks labour etc thatis consistenly certain tasks are shared between members unchangingoOrganic solidarity modern society division of labour specialization of tasksheld together in a unit through the medaphor of a body there are certain functions in the body that work together to create it like oraganic societies people specialize in certain tasks to create a large scal modern societyThe stateLarge scale modern societiesBenedict Anderson an institution like the Church the university and the modern corporationIngests and excretes personelIt has its own memory and interest in selfpreservation apart from the people that make it upThere are still traditional societies that are still evident today ex nomadic however due to the state the amount of such communities are decreasing and are being shunned to the outskirts of societiesThere is nothing necessary about state formation large scale societies do not need the state to create a type o integrationNonstate societiesAfricasegmentary social systemoTerm invented by anthro Evan Pritchards who studied The Nuer in southern sudanoThe sss increasing inclusive nesting social groupstribesoNested social groups allowed mobilization of large amounts of people for warfareLogic each social group would unite forwarfare brothers tribe will unite to fight based on the kin systemShows that through kin group it is allowed to mobilize large numbers of people without the stateoNo hereditary leaderoThey are acephalous large scale organization without leadershipoCommon in precolonial AfricaSocial system of prowess leaders of prowessoAchievement based on leadership leaders who have prowessspecial abilitiesoAchievementbased statues acquired through their actionsin SE Asia capacity to demonstrate remarkable feats some type of poweroWith each success followers would growoWhoever was victorios over a leader they take over their followers and their society would grow in terms of its membersoAs leaders would die the members would just attach to other peopleoSo there is no system where it would repeat itself
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