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Principles of Evolution

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Christopher Watts

th Anthropology September 30 , 2010. Principles of Evolution Goals: 1. Understand microevolution Genetic basis of inheritance and biological evolution Population genetics Natural selection Adaptation 2. Understand macroevolution Speciation How to read a cladogram How evolution works on a grand scale The modern synthesis The Modern Synthesis of Evolution: Focuses on how evolution works at level of phenotypes, genes, and population Microevolution Macroevolution DNARNAProtein Cell: 1. Somatic cells: most cells in body (except sex cells) 2. Gametes: sex cells (sperm and ovum [egg]) 3. Cytoplasm: complex mix of membranes, molecules, and tiny structures called organelles 4. Nucleus: contains hereditary material known as chromosomes Chromosome: Paired rod-shaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit traits form generation to generation DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid: nucleic acid used to store genetic information that codes for the synthesis of proteins Four bases: Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine, (C), Thymine (T) A always goes with T, G always goes with C RNA (Ribonucleic acid) Molecules: 1) Dictate synthesis of proteins that perform a wide variety of functions in body 2) Regulate expression of other genes
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