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ANT - L06 [Oct 21 2010]

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University of Toronto St. George
Christopher Watts

L06 Oct 21 Overview N General patterns of morphology for some key fossil hominins N Main hypotheses on human origins N Evolutionary anthropology and human race concepts N Basics of medical anthropology N Forensic anthropology and how it relates to applied anthropology Some Key Australopithecines%K0L789#0,O+42L3L38 N Australopithecus anamensis N Australopithecus afarensis N Australopithecus africanus N Australopithecus aethipicus N Australopithecus boisei N Australopithecus robustus Australopithecus anamensis N Kanapoi, Kenya N 4.2 3.9 MYA N Tooth row is parallel (ape-like) N Partial tibia provides strong evidence for bipedality o Hind limbs as main source of locomotion N Primitive (ape-like) cranial morphology and a derived (human-like) postcranial morphology o From the head-up it looks like an ape o From the neck-down it looks more like a human Australopithecus afarensis N Ethiopia (Hadar, Omo, and Fejej) and Tanzania (Laetoli) N 4.2 3.0 MYA N Many specimens N Complex morphology exhibiting some ape-like traits (e.g., sagittal crests crests on the top and back of the skull that serve as anchor points for the chewing muscles) and hominin-like traits (e.g., valgus knee) N Naturally hooked fingers N Transitional animal equal time on ground and in trees N Single, sexually dimorphic species or two species? N Laetoli Footprints o 3.6 MYA in Laetoli, Tanzania o Demonstrate that early hominins were bipedal o Big toes hardly diverged from the rest of foot, unlike in chimpanzees Big toe in same location as humans o *,L9Z,8K00O-897LN014OO4Z0-940-411 the way modern humans walk
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