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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - October 20.docx

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Shawn Lehman

ANT100 October 20 2011 Lecture 5 Hominins Human Variation and Forensic AnthropologyLecture GoalsGeneral patterns of morphology for some key fossil homininsMain hypotheses on human originsEvolutionary anthropology and human race conceptsBasics of medical anthropologyForensic anthropology and applied anthropologyAustralopithecus anamensisKanapoi Kenya4239 MYAtooth row is parallel apelikepartial tibia provides strong evidence for bipedalityprimitive apelike cranial morphology and a derived humanlike postcranial morphologyAustralopithecus afarensisEthiopia and Tanzania4230 MYAMany specimens parts of bone structureComplex morphology exhibiting some apelike traits eg Sagittal crests and homininlike traits eg Valgus kneefemur angled inwardsSingle sexually dimorphic species or two speciesLaetoli Footprints o 36 MYA in Laetoli Tanzania o Demonstrate that early hominins were bipedal o Big toes hardly diverged from the rest of the foot unlike in chimpanzees o Gait was heelstrike followed by toeoff the way modern humans walkSmall creaturestransitional zone between able to move quickly and efficiently through threes and being bipedalAustralopithecus africanusVarious sites in South Africa3023 MYAaverage brain size is 458 ccDental features differ from those in A afarensisPostcranial features similar to those in A afarensisAustralopithecus aethiopicusWest Turkana Kenya2723 MYAlarge face huge zygomatics large skull crests and enormous teeth
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