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Lecture 4

Archaeology Lecture 4 - Upper Paeleolithic Era

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Upper Paleolithic Period Lecture Four AustraliaColonization of Australia by at least 40kya watercraft Willandra Lakes region SE Australia NSW Earliest evidence for cremation Mungo Lady ca 40kya Nearby ochre burial of Mungo Man same time periodThe First Americans Some debate as to when people first arrived in the AmericasArch Evidence ca 15 to 13 kya likely more than 1 migrationBeringia landmass linking NW Asia with AlaskaNow under the Bering SeaPassage south by 14 kyaice free corridorPaleoindians Dated to between ca 13599 and 8000 yaFamous for flutedpoint technology known as ClovisOriginally associated with biggame hunting now believed they also took bison and caribou fish and seamammalsOpportunistic and very mobile settled in a diverse array of environments for reasons such as salmon runs and other such environmental opportunitiesEarly Site Monte Verde ChileOccupied by ca 14500 kya may have been occupied as early as 31 kya good preservation of bone and wooden artifacts wooden houses covered with hidesEmphasis on plant foods eg potatoAfter the Paleolithic Between ca 20 and 14 kya we see the following changes Glaciers retreatsea levels rise Temperatures increase Humidity increases Some plant and animal species disappear eg megafauna in the AmericasAfter the Pleistocene Many groups adapted by broadening their resource bases Eg Mesolithic groups in Europe Near EastIncreased use of fish shell fish small mammals seeds and nutsLater people began to intensify their exploitation of certain resources Eg 8000 BC in the Near East SW Asia
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