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Primate 3

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University of Toronto St. George
Christopher Watts

ANT100Y1Y Outline for BIO Lecture #5 What to Get Today General patterns of morphology for some key fossil hominins. Main hypotheses on human origins. How evolutionary anthropologists refute human race concepts. What forensic anthropology is and how it relates to applied anthropology Some Key Australopithecines: The First Real Hominins Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus aethiopicus Australopithecus boisei Australopithecus robustus Australopithecus anamensis Kanapoi, Kenya. 4.23.9 MYA. Tooth row is parallel (ape-like). Partial tibia provides strong evidence for bipedality. Primitive (ape-like) cranial morphology and a derived (human-like) postcranial morphology. Australopithecus afarensis Ethiopia (Hadar, Omo, and Fejej) and Tanzania (Laetoli). 4.23.0 MYA. Many specimens. Complex morphology exhibiting some ape-like traits (e.g., sagittal crests) and hominin-like traits (e.g., valgus knee). Single, sexually dimorphic species or two species? Laetoli Footprints o 3.6 MYA in Laetoli, Tanzania. o Demonstrate that early hominins were bipedal. o Big toes hardly diverged from the rest of foot, unlike in chimpanzees. o Gait was heel-strike followed by toe-off; the way modern humans walk. Australopithecus africanus Various sites in South Africa. 3.02.3 MYA. Average brain size is 458 cc. Dental features differ from those in A. afarensis. Postcranial features similar to those in A. afarensis. Australopithecus aethiopicus West Turkana, Kenya. 2.72.3 MYA. Large face, huge zygomatics, large skull crests, and enormous teeth. Remarkably primitive hominin at such a late date; shows evolution is not linear or positive
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