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1st lecture Biological

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Christopher Watts

19:12 September 23 2010 Study Suggestions READ associated chapters before class LISTEN and make only short notes REVIEW outline next day REWRITE! your lecture notes in full immediately after lecture *lecture notes will be on the course website Section Goals a) historical development of biological science b) Diversity of the life & natural processes produced this diversity c) Fundamental biological & evolutionary concepts d) How anthropologists, including those in my department, apply evolutionary biology in their research What is evolutionary biology? Application of modern evolutionary theory to studies of the morphology, ecology, and behavior of human and non-human primates. % disciplines 1) Primatology Scientific study of non-human primates Primate anatomy, field studies of wild animals, primate psychology Conservation of primates 2) Paleoanthropoly multidisciplinary study of biological evolution of humans and non-human primates, the advent of and changes in human cultural activities and evolutionary history of behavior 3) Human Variation Spatial and temporal variations in human features Ex. Geographic and climate variations in body, skin 4) Medical Anthropology How social, environmental and biological factors influence health and influence of individuals at the community, regional, national and global level Forensic Anthropology Focuses on skeletal remains of humans and seek to determine age, sex, stature, ancestry and reason for death Major Questions about humans and our biology How does evolution work and how does it apply to us? What are biological characteristics of our species? What is physical record of our evolution (Paleoanthropology) www.notesolution.comHow to conduct research: State Problem, gather info, hypothesis, test hypothesis, record and analysis data, conclusion, repeat work (Ex. London Fog, one off?) Early Naturalist Carolus Linnaeus (Karl von Linne, 1707-1778) First comprehensive classification system for living things Each living thing named separate species On basis of physical resemblances, species grouped into broader categories called genera (singular genus) Binomial Nomenclature: First letter of genus is capitalized, like so: Homo Species designations always lower case: sapiens Of set text in italics or underlined Believed everything was created by God, cataloguing Gods work Became overwhelmed by the diversity of life, placed humans in with a chimpanzeesstarted to doubt Gods creation George-Louis Leclerc, Comte Buffon (1707-1788) Earths history . 6000 years (ca. 75000 years). Major issue with contemporary religious authorities they had chosen based on reading bible Founded biogeography: despite similar environments, different regions have distinct plants and animals . Different communities of organisms, Kings gardener Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) Inheritance of acquired characteristics. vital forces within the creatures help them to adapt to environment Acquired traits: developed through use or disuse, passed o to future generations Among the first to formulate method for origination of new species through use or disuse of certain characters of organism Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Naturalist on H.M.S. Beagle, scientific expedition to Pacific coast of South America (almost didnt get the job because Captain didnt like the shape of his nose!!) Observed incredible variety of living and especially fossilized creatures Conclusion: NO fixity of species and notion on short, catastrophic geological history of earth must be incorrect and agreed with Leclerc His Professors put his name in for a naturalist position on the Beagle to sail around the world for 5 yearsdrop him off on land with researchers. South America, South east Asia, Africa etc. drawing pictures Arrived home famous because he had been sending things home to Profs, married his cousins Wedgewood family (rich!) Variation Important in Evolution Physical varaity: in any population of organisms If variety provides advantages to certain individuals, then they may produce more offspring
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