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University of Toronto St. George
Christopher Watts

Lecture#5 Australopithecus Anamensis - east africa - tooth raw is parallel(ape like) - Ancient specimen - The tooth row is parallel to each other - Partial tibia(shin bone) a kind of bipedality(hominin characteristics) - neck down(very human like) Australopithecus Afarensis - Ethiopia - common ancestor to all living hominins(past) - Mixture of ape like (crest top and back of the skull---ankle points of chewing muscles) human like (valgus knee) - Were males larger than females? - fossilized footprints( bipedal walking)....walking type:heel, toe, push - demonstrate that early hominins were bipedal Africanus -South Africa -Avg brain size is 458cc -3-3.2 millions ago -slight increase in brain volume pedalism similar to Afarensis Dental features differ from those in A.afarensis Aethiopicus (black skull) -West kenya -Large face, huge zygomatics, large skull crests and enormous teeth -Remarkably primitive hominin at such a late date Boisei (largest teeth) -East Africa - “Hyper robust” hominin - Morphology similar to A.aethipicus - Contemporaneous with members of the genus Homo Robustus - South Africa - Another robust form - small anterior teeth and large posterior teeth, which are covered in thick enamel Gracile and robust forms? Gracile Australopithecines -afarensis africanus Robust Australopithecines -boisei -robustus -athiopicus Rise of the genus Homo - East AfrIca - earliest date 2.4million yrs ago - 1st fossil member :Homo habilis which means handy man - some researchers suggest that H.habilis is “junk taxon” and that there may be two or more species of Homo by 2.0million yrs ago Homo Habilis -creature has much larger brain size than Australopithecines -primitive stone tools in the same fossil bed as Australopithecines -Morphology similar to contemporaneous australopithecines -May represent 2 or more different species (H.rudolfensis & H.habilis) -First species of Homo or Junk Taxon? Rudolfensis -Kenya -orginally considered H. Habilis Homo erectus -1st species in genus Homo found outside Africa -Brain and body size changes in lineage -controlled use of fire and hunting -Early African specimens may be different species, Homo ergaster Homo ergaster -Earliest african specimens -Turkana boy:adult height estimate, limb proportions and predicted strength -debate on H.erectus or H.ergaster as direct ancestor of modern humans Heidelbergensis -Europe and Africa -compared to H.erectus, H.Heidelbergensis -smaller dentition -larger brain size -large size Homo antecessor -spain Controversy surrounding species designation -Type specimen is juvenile -1st Hominin in Europe? Homo neanderthalensis - europe and middle east - -buried people in graves with “offerings” -limb bones heavily marked by muscular attachments; thick walls of cortical bone and large joints/ Neanderthals extremely muscular, highly active, & athletic by modern human standards -Genetics of Neanderthals versus moderns humans point to a 700KYA separation &considerable genetic variation -Some consensus:neanderthals represent unique species: homo Neanderthalensis Homo floresiensis -Indonesia -small body size -small brain size -primitive and derived features - NOT aberrant individual; rather, unique species Homo sapiens -160 KYA in Africa -100 KYA in middle East -40 KYA in Europe -controlled use of fire -hunting and gathering -cultural remains, including increasingly complex stone tools Postcrania of Homo Sapiens -less robust than early H.sapiens of Neanderthals -longer limbs and thinner bone walls -longer, more lightly built hands -shorter, thicker pubic bones -reduced robusticity result of greater reliance on stone tools than on brute force Human Origins Hypotheses -Replacement hypothesis - one wave of human dispersal and replacement of other congenera out of Africa - modern humans are descendants of African H.sapiens - H.neanderthalensis
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