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lec 2 ant334 9/19/2012 7:12:00 AM Cartilage is a form of connective tissue in the body  Hyaline cartilage binds every synobial joints o Tough tissue, little ability to renewal  Fibrocartilage o Between vertebrae  Elastic cartilage o Least common  in ears (pinnae) Bone as a tissue: structure and chemical composition  Tuberculi spine  eaten away by virus villi (3 vertebrae fused  one wedged between 2)  In lab 20% water in bone is gone + lipid component is gone (bone afterlife no water no lipid it does have collagen protein and calcium phosphate hydroxyapatite) o Bone in life has a lot of fat in it o Protein in bone very important for ispotope analysis (what the person ate) and for o Inorganic part of bone: calcium phosphate hydroxyapatite is loose crystal accepts substitution easily (more easily than the other mineral in our body enamel (teeth)  Especially after death inorganic part still chemically active  Bone is like spider web /oak between flexible+weak and flexible and strong o Difficult to mimic Structural types of bone tissue(different types of bone)  Woven o Always transient o Only heals as a baby/or when healing  Cancellous/spongy/trabecular  all same thing BONE  Cortical/compact full of tiny little holes , more dense then spongy  Subchondralsits beneath a cartilage on a joint surface (chondra cartilage, cells that make cartilage chondrocytes)  Diploiccortical spongy cortical sandwhich  SKULL BONE Where does bone come from 2 pathways but bone is bone  Formed from cartilaginous template 1 o Endochondral(within cartilage template) ossification(to form bone) o Most of post cranial skeleton follows this pattern o Most dominant form + skeletal health  Formed directly from membrane o Intramembranous ossification o Most of skull o Clavicle Bone Growth  Fontanelles only in baby skulls  skull bones still have not joined o Just membrane o Trapezoid shape o Absence of joining = flexibility to move through birth canal o Frontal bone(not a paired bone in adulthood) in babies is 2 frontals separated by a metopic suture : will be gone by age 2  Tibia o Under the endochondral bone is the cancellous tissue with red bone marrow o Every growing long bone has a epiphysis(growing end) at the superior and inferior end :only grows here not at the shaft o Outside of bone tough connective tissue is periosteum o Under the periosteum is the compact tissue: cortal bone o Shaft of bone is diaphysis o Nutrient artery to feed the medullary canal with yellow bone marrow which goes through a hole in the diaphysis  Hole in the bone: foramen (functional hole)  Nutrient foramen  Proximal epiphysis always forms first fuses last o At 18 fuses o For couple years shaft of bone can get thicker get more mass o Initial bone is woven bone(baby bone) and then replaced by interstitial lamellae (layers,lamery bone) minerals held together by collagen o Then you get 2ndery osteon : which have blood vessel throught it o Use secondary bone to age bone 2 o When you are really old you are mostly 2ndery bone o Hole in the middle : Haversian canal o Under polarized light : cross feature = collagen+mineral Older bone: 2ndery osteons intruding on other 2ndery osteons  Younger bone: woven bone  Plexiform bone(non human):pig : layered  Dog bone: primary bone and 2ndery osteons in rows and squeared rather then human roundish  Hydroxapitte and collegen always the same but the structur
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