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lec 4 ant334.docx

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University of Toronto St. George

lec 4 ant334 10/2/2012 7:07:00 AM Bone growth:  Laying down of new occified tissue as modeling, and shifting around that tissue as remodeling  Diaphysis primary growth centre and then metaphysis (middle growth plate) where they meet with epiphysis (secondary growth centre  Metaphysis so sensitive during childgrowth because there are so many of them  If epiphysis fuses prematurely = shorter long bone Puberty:  Celatirsica in the brain: pituitary gland o Hypothalamic feedback loop : manages growth and age of human body o Hypothalamus controls pituitary gland secreting growth hormone o LHRF: luthenising hormone release factor o FSHR:follicle stimulating hormone releasing factor o Initiation of puberty = hypothalamus stimulating pituitary gland to stimulate more growth hormone = more gonad activity o Girls get menarche, guys get functional sperm o Once epiphysis is fused to the diaphysis linear growth is done, but bone mass is still growing for a bit more o Bone is internally structured do not need to know primary osteon etc Remodeling tunnel happens longitudinally towards the left  Haversion canal during the formation phase and then you have completed osteon (2ndery)  Primary bone: layered linear: secondary looks like circles Aging  Deleterious (bad) Osteoporosis  Decrease in bone bass Remodeling –maintenance  Cancellous bones: in vertebrae, spongy bone, in pelvis, and in the epiphysis of the long bones 1 Mechanisms of normal bone loss with age  For old ppl weight bearing activities are good for you like walking deep respiration (not swimming as per se)  Hip fractures happen at the neck of the femur not the hip bone : for hip replacement they get a new head of a femur and a screw that goes through due to bone loss o If it is because of osteoporisis acetabulum new needed First clinical sign of osteoporosis: vertebral mass loss  Loss of horizontal and vertical struts in the vertebrae: horizontal not that bad but vertical holds the vertebrae up = compression fracture  Colle’s fracture: distal radius because the cortex is quite thin and the spongey bone (65% tubercular bone = spongy) just aboce the wrist = less dense with age and weaker = wrist fracture Axillary skeleton : (hyoid), sternum,ribs,vertebraie, (clavicles scapulae) LAB  Interesting facts about the hyoid o Ossification centers 6 o Articulations 0 o Most likely to be broken when death was caused by death, strangulation, auto accident(THE MOST) o Manubrium,body,xiphoid process(yellow= cartilagionous, sometimes it ossifies sometimes it doesn’t) = sternum o Perferation = hole through the sternum body = o
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