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EVOL ANTH Lecture #5 .docx

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Max Friesen

Saya Man Luo University of Toronto ANT100Y1Y EVOL ANTH Lecture #5 th October 18 , 2012 What to “Get” Today  General patterns of morphology for some key fossil hominins.  What is means to be human.  Main hypotheses on human origins. Some Key Australopithecines[ 南(方古)猿] : The First “Real” Hominins (古人类)  Australopithecus anamensis (湖畔 南方古猿)  Kanapoi, Kenya  4.2-3.9 MYA  Tooth row is parallel (ape-like)  Partial tibia provides strong evidence for bipedality  Primitive (ape-like) cranial morphology and a derived (human-like) postcranial morphology  Australopithecus afarensis (南方古猿阿法种)  Ethiopia (Hadar, Omo, and Fejej) and Tanzania (Laetoli)  4.2-3.0 MYA  Many specimens  Complex morphology exhibiting some ape-like traits (e.g., sagittal crests) and hominin-like traits (valgus knee)  Single, sexually dimorphic species or two species?  Australopithecus afarensis, cont’d Laetoli Footprints  3.6 MYA in Laetoli, Tanzania.  Demonstrate that early hominins were bipedal  Big toes hardly diverged from the rest of foot, unlike in chimpanzees.  Gait was “heel-strike” followed by “toe-off”, the way modern humans walk.  Recent A. afarensis Discovery  Selam (peace): fossilized skull& sketletal remains of 3-year-old, female. Dated to 3.2 MYA.  Hyoid bone: typical ape morphology Saya Man Luo University of Toronto  Foot&lower limb remains: bipedal locomotion  Scapula& hand bones: gorilla-like scapula and long and curved manual phalanges indicate importance of arboreal behavior.  Australopithecus africanus (非洲南 方古猿),  Various sites in South Africa.  3.0-2.3 MYA.  Average brain size is 458 cc.  Dental features differ from those in A. afarensis.  Postcranial features similar to those in A. afarensis.  Australopithecus sediba (源泉南方 古猿)  Malapa, South Africa.  ~ 1.98 MYA.  Initial discovery by 9 years old son of researcher!  Juvenile male (MHI)& adult female (MH2) remains.  Very controversial!  Brain: human-like in shape, yet
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