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ANT 100 OCT 11.docx

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Shawn Lehman

ANT 100 OCT 11 Oligocene primates: Three haprhine features; -Fused frontal bone -Full postorbital closure -Fused mandibular symphases Three taxonomic groups -Parapithecidae (“old world”) -Propliopithecidae (“old world”) -Platyrrhini (“new world” – south America) South America Primates: Primates appear for the first time in fossil record towards late Oligocene -Origins of South American primates unclear -May have rafted over from Africa (Africa - South America were closer than they ever were at this point in time – ocean currents flowing from Africa to South America) Miocene Primates: 3 sequential sub-epochs for apes: Early Miocene apes: 23.0-16.0 MYA, monkeys & apes (e.g. Proconsul) apparently confined to Africa Mid Miocene apes: 16.0 – 11.6 MYA, ape-like catarrhines (eg. Fryopithecus) widespread and diverse in Europe and Asia Late Miocene apes: 11.6-5.3 MYA, apes (e.g. Sivapithecus) became rarer as woodlands and forests replaced by drier and more open habitat Miocene monkeys *Human evolved from common ancestors of monkeys and apes *MYA = millions of years ago Pliocene Primates & Pleistocene: Weather and Geography: -Land masses still on move – connection between north and south America opened via Panama -Fluctuations in Global Temp -Mediterranean sea dried up at end of Miocene and filled up again in Pliocene Plioscene Primates: -Geography and climate -Two Main Taxa: Fossil Cercopithecinae & Fossil Colobinae -Phylogenetic relationships: unresolved Transitional forms (apes to humans): 1) Modification of postcranial skeleton for bipedal locomotion 2) Shape and size of canines, especially in males, changes so not pointy and blade- lik
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