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ANT 100 October 11th 2012.docx

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Shawn Lehman

ANT 100 October 11 2012th Gfytdfrgfygtfvubjbbjjhugbuvylkoijyhugty7 Lecture 4: Primate & Early Human Evolution Lecture goals - General patterns of morphology and phylogenetics for fossil primates - What a hominin is in terms of taxonomy - Morphological trends in hominin evolution: - Bipedalism - Expansion in brain size - Changes in dental/cranial Time frame and climate: On a continuous decrease in temperature from the Paleocene period . Paleocene “Primates” - Geography and climate - Very different from present-day conditions - Hotter, more humid Paleocene and primate-like mammals: Plesiadapiformes - Body size: tiny, shrew sized to size of small dog - Niche: Likely solitary, nocturnal quadrupeds; well-developed sense of smell - Diet: insects and seeds - Used to be classified as primates because of primate-like teeth and limbs that are adapted for arboreal lifestyle Recent: Plesiadapids NOT primates 1) No postorbital bar, 2) 2) claws instead of nails, 3) Eyes placed on side of head, & 4) Enlarged incisors. Two main Eocene Primate: Families 1) Adapidae - Body size: 100g to 6900g - Diurnal and nocturnal forms - Mainly arboreal quadrupeds, some may have been specialized leapers - Smaller adapids ate mostly fruit and insects, larger forms ate more fruit and leaves - Led to lemurs?? - 2) Omomyidae - Body size of 45 g to 2500 g - Some nocturnal others diurnal - Omomyids thought to been specialized leapers - Teeth: adapted for eating insects and soft fruits, only few species were leaf-eaters - Led to tarsiers?? Omomyid (Shoshonius) and what we think they looked like - Warning: Similarity in form does NOT always equate with close phylogenetic relationships Oligocene Primates - Three haplorhine features: - Fused frontal bone, - Full postorbital closure - Fused mandibular symphasis - Three taxonomic groups: - Parapithecidae - Propliopithecidae - And Platyrrhini South American Primates - Primates appear for first time in fossil record of South America towards late Oligocene - Origins of South American primate unclear - May have “rafted” over from Africa Miocene Primates - 3 sequential sub-epochs for apes - Early Miocene apes - Mid Miocene apes - Late Miocene apes - Miocene monkeys (See textbook) - (we did not evolve from monkeys and apes, we evolved from a common ancestor back in time) Miocene Primates - Early Miocene (23.0 – 16.0 MYA), monkey
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