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ANT100Y. Sept 20th docx.docx

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Shawn Lehman

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ANT100Y, Section 1: Evolutionary Anthropology Office: AP404A (19 Russell Street) Office Hours: Tuesdays 2:00 – 3:00 pm. Study suggestions: RLRR  Read associated chapter(s) before coming to class.  Listen to me during lectures; make only short notes.  Review outline the next day.  Rewrite the lecture from notes into a full length Section goals:  1) Historical development of biological science  2) Diversity of life and natural processes produced this diversity  3) Fundamental biological and evolutionary What is evolutionary anthropology?  Application of modern evolutionary theory to studies of the morphology, ecology, and behaviour of human and non-human primates 5 Research Disciplines in Evolutionary Anthropology Primatology  Scientific study of non-human primates  Primate anatomy, field studies of wild animals, primate psychology, etc  Primatologists seek to conserve primates in vanishing tropical ecosystems Paleoanthropology  Multidisciplinary study of: biological evolution of humans and non-human primates.  Advent of and changes in human cultural activities  Evolutionary history of behavior in human and non-human primates Human Variations  Spatial and temporal variations in human features Medical Anthropology  How social, environmental, and biological factors influence health and illness of individuals at the community, regional, national, and global levels. Forensic Anthropology  Focuses only on skeletal remains of humans  Forensic anthropologists seek to determine the age, sex, stature, ancestry Major Questions about humans and our biology  Trying to figure out the characteristic of human beings  Build evolutionary record of how we got to where we are How do evolutionary Anthropologists conduct their research?  Gather as much information as possible on the related queston, make hypothesis  Test hypothesis by recording and analysing data  State conclusion 4 problems limited development of theory of evolution 1. Lack of knowledge on age of earth 2. Religious concept of fixity of species 3. Lack of scientific method 4. Religious notion of separate creation for humans and animals  1) Age of the earth  In 1650, earth created on afternoon of October 23, 4004 B.C (before Christ)  Accepted because church pronouncements held as secular and religious law 2. Fixity of species th  By 8 century, scientists say living things created in present form  Species, especially human species, could not change 3. Lack of scientific method  Many ideas and concepts based on singular observations or fanciful accounts of other travelers 4. Separate Creation for humans and animals Religious doctrine that god created humans Carolus Linnaeus (Karl von Linne, 1707-1778) st  1 compreshensive classification system for living things  Each living thing named separate species  On basis of physical resemblances, species grouped into broader categories called genera (Singular genus) Binomial Nomenclature  First letter of genus is capitalized like so: Homo  Species designations always lower case, like so: sapiens  Off-set text: underline if hand-writing, or italicize when typing  Linnaeus NOT an “Evolutionist”  Scala Naturae or nature’s ladder Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788)  Earth’s history > 6000 years (ca. 75000 years). Major issue with contemporary religious authorities  Founded biogeography: despite similar environments, different regions have distinct plants and animals Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)  Inheritance of acquired characteristics. “Vital forces” within creatures help them adapt to environment  Acquired traits: developed through use or disuse, passed on to future generations  Among first to formulate method for origination of new species through use or disuse of certain characters of organism  Under extreme conditions adapt in one generation very rarely to survive Charles Darwin (1809-1882)  Naturalist on H.M.S Beagle, scientific expedition to pacific coast of south America (almost didn’t get job ecause Capt. Didn’t like shape of his nose!)  Observed incredible variety of living and especially fossilized creatures  Conclusion: NO fixity
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