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lec 8 ant334.docx

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University of Toronto St. George

lec 8 ant334 11/7/2012 7:23:00 AM Sexing Nuchal crest: prominent knotch for muscle attachment (bigger the more hyper masculine) Brow ridge and edge of the orbit are 2 DIFFERENT CHARACTERISTICS  Males have a browridge females do not Mastoid process Supra orbitl margin Surpraorbital rodige/glabella Mental eminence Another feature of robustness: root of zygomatic arch Skull is tricky for sexing Cremation shrinks bone works it and cracks it Elements other than skull,pelvis  Shape differences o Femoral neck (way hips are shaped) o Elbow carrying angle o Rib curvature  Size differences(basic sexual dimorphism)  Must be population specific  The lure of the 50% success rate o Shaft of the metatarsal Juvenile Age  Dental formation(teeth the most useful even a little crown) o Stable, not effected by environments, same stages of growth, everyone has to eventually meet them, the narrowest error bones come with the formation of the tooth o Dental age: formation and emergence (eruption) of deciduous and permanent –PRECISE, wear and decay of teeth- IMPRECISE  Appearance of ossification centers (for bones that have ossification centers, bones that do not have an ossification center : no epiphysis diaphysis :HYOID (not reall because 3 pieces fuse together), CARPALS DO NOT)  Maturation of bones o Long bones o Short bones o Irregular bones Estimation of adult age at death Methods but with problems  Accuracy o Whether a particular estimate is in the ball park, does it include the true value.whether you include the true value.  Precision o Bias(direction) and error (magnitude)  When the true value is close to bottom of the range  bias o Amount of error around the measure  Accurate without precision is of some use, precision without accuracy is useless  Forensic relevance  “farewell to paleodemography” can’t succeed. Methods reflect samples used to develop them .(bocquet-appel  hard to age bones 50+ years, the juvenile indicators that we have do not count anymore o aging is VARIABLE, once development is over what you have is the breakdown of homeostasis and that happens differently for everyone (bunch of 70 year old are more variable than group of 7 year olds) A typical distribution- over aging yong adults, under-aging old adults  Femur histology Types of estimation: Cranial suture closer, cortical bone involution, cortical bone histology, auricular surgace 1.Dental Age estimation  Tooth wear – many approaches, qualitative and quantitative must be population specific  Cementum incremental layers – MAY correspond with annual depostition (Charles)  Root translucency – tooth roots become thinner and more
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